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54 abbreviated ring formulae omit ring abbreviated

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Unformatted text preview: ring structures (example, glucose) ring Fig. 5.4 Abbreviated ring formulae omit ring Abbreviated carbons carbons Disaccharides – Two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic bond (formed by hydrolysis) glycosidic Important Disacchrides: •Sucrose = glucose + fructose Sucrose (table sugar, transported in plants) (table •Lactose = glucose + galactose Lactose (milk sugar) (milk •Maltose = glucose + glucose Maltose (malt sugar) (malt Formation of Disaccharides Formation Fig. 5.5 Carbohydrate functions: 1. Energy Storage polysaccharides 1. •Starch – mostly plant cells •Glycogen - animals 2. Mobile energy molecules •Glucose – animals (in the blood) •sucrose – plant mobile sugar 3. Structural molecules •Cellulose – plant cell walls •Chitin – fungal cells wall, insect and arachnid exoskeletons and Polysaccharides – Sugar polymers of monosaccharides (100’s to 1000’s of monomers joined by glycosidic bonds) by 1. Storage polysaccharides •Starch – 1-4 linkage of alpha glucose Amylose – unbranched polymer Amylopectin –branched polymer STARCH IS A MAJOR STORAGE STARCH MOLECULE IN PLANTS MOLECULE •Glycogen – like amylopectin but Glycogen more highly branched...
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