Unformatted text preview: in red blood cells and sicklecell disease Change in one amino acid changes Change protein function protein 4. NUCLEIC ACIDS 4. Building blocks -- nucleotides Two major types of nucleic acids DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) RNA (ribonucleic acid) Store and “transmit” genetic Store information information 4. NUCLEIC ACIDS 4. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) Double stranded Bases are: A,T,C,G Extremely long-lived molecule RNA (ribonucleic acid) Sinlgle stranded Bases are: A,U,C,G Shorter-lived molecule PROTEIN SYNTHESIS DNA RNA Protein
Translation cytoplasm of eukaryotes eukaryotes Transcription Transcription nucleus of eukaryotes eukaryotes Transcription (nucleus) Transport Translation (cytoplasm)
Fig. 5.25 NUCLEIC ACID STRUCTURE NUCLEIC Nucleotide (monomer) 1. Pentose Sugar •ribose •deoxyribose 2. Phosphate group 3. Nitrogenous Base •pyrimidine •purine
Fig. 5.26 PENTOSE SUGAR PENTOSE Fig. 5.26 NITROGENOUS BASE NITROGENOUS Pyrimidine – single ring structure Fig. 5.26 •cytosine (C) •thymine (T) •uracil (U) Purine – double ring structure •adenine (A) •quanine (G) Nucleic acid – polymer of nucleotides Nucleic Bond phosphate Bond 5’ on Carbon 5 to oxygen on Carbon 3 Carbon Nucleic acid Nucleic polymer has a 5’ end and a 3’ end end Information is Information stored in the sequence of 3’ bases bases Fig. 5.26 DNA Structure DNA Double-Stranded – Two nucleic acid chains joined at the nucleotide bases bases Bases in separate chains Bases pair: pair: A - T (purine to pyrimidine) G - C (purine to pyrimidine) Fig. 5.27 DNA RNA Protein...
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