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Chapter_17_fall_2008_class

Chapter_17_fall_2008_class - GENETIC CODE Inheritance and...

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GENETIC CODE Inheritance and genes Genes and enzymes Phenotype, traits, alleles Development is produced by metabolic pathways Hypothesis – genes code for enzymes Metabolic pathways are a series of enzymatic steps
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Beadle and Tatum – classic studies of the relationship between genes and enzymes Synthesis of the amino acid arginine Studied bread mold mutants that required arginine for growth I arginine II arginine or citrulline III arginine, citrulline or ornoithine Class Requires for Growth pre- cursor ornithine enz A citrulline enz B arginine enz C
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Figure 17.2 Beadle and Tatum’s evidence for the one gene-one enzyme hypothesis
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Phenotype changed because one enzyme was missing Concluded that one gene coded for one enzyme; “one gene-one enzyme hypothesis” Beadle and Tatum (continued)
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DNA DNA Messenger RNA Messenger RNA (mRNA) (mRNA) Polypeptide Polypeptide Transcription Translation
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Figure 17.3 Prokaryotic cell
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Figure 17.3
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Figure 17.3
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Figure 17.3 Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic cell
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Figure 17.4 The triplet code
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GENETIC CODE There are amino acids in natural proteins Code = one, two, or three bases? How many bases are needed to code for an amino acid? Genetic code must give sequence of amino acids from sequence of nitrogenous bases
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GENETIC CODE Code =1 base, could only code for 4 different amino acids Code = 3 base sequence gives 64 unique combinations Code = 2 base sequence, could only code for 16 different amino acids
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Differences between DNA and RNA: 1.
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