qfd - Quality Function Deployment Introduction and...

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Unformatted text preview: Quality Function Deployment Introduction and Application and Application AMCO, Inc. September 22, 2006 Grace L. Duffy, President Duffy President Management and Performance Systems 1 Welcome! Welcome! Coffee and introductions Name Function How long with AMCO? What is your business background? What do you know about QFD already? Seminar expectations G. Duffy © 2006 2 Instructor/Facilitato Instructor/Facilitator Grace Duffy President, Management and Performance Systems Management and Performance Systems 6 Sigma Master Black Belt, Certified Quality Manager, Certified Manager of Process Improvement, Quality Auditor, Auditor, Quality Improvement Associate, ASQ Fellow MBA, BA/BS Anthropology and Archaeology 20 20 years with IBM in Services, Marketing and Corporate: IBM Retired as head of Corporate Technical Education 10 years as Chair of Business Dept. and Dean for 10 years as Chair of Business Dept. and Dean for Economic Economic Development, Trident Technical College, SC G. Duffy © 2006 3 Obj Objectives 1. Identify the origins and objectives of Quality Function Deployment. 2. Describe several of the major results of using th the QFD tool. Explore how QFD can benefit AMCO AMCO. 3. Explain a step-by-step strategy for using QFD step-byfor successful customer focused design for successful customer focused design. 4. Apply the QFD tool to an AMCO sample customer requirement situation. customer requirement situation. G. Duffy © 2006 4 I.QFD: Its origins and objectives It •Quality: Meeting customer requirements customer requirements •Function: What must be done •Deployment: Who will do it, when G. Duffy © 2006 5 What is What is ? Quality Function Deployment is a complex and detailed methodology that: and detailed methodology that: 1. Translates customer requirements. 2. Correlates them with technical requirements. 3. Cascades them down through each stage of development or delivery. G. Duffy © 2006 6 Definition: Definition: A system for translating consumer requirements system for translating consumer requirements into into appropriate company requirements at each stage from research and product/service development development to engineering and manufacturing to marketing/sales and distribution. G. Duffy © 2006 7 Two Two objectives of QFD 1. Convert users’ needs, or customer demands, for for product or service benefits into substitute quality characteristics at the design stage. 2. Deploy the substitute quality characteristics id identified at the design stage to the production th th activities prior to production startup or service delivery delivery. G. Duffy © 2006 8 The QFD Process The QFD Process 1. 2. 3. 4. Organization Description Breakthrough and creativity Implementation G. Duffy © 2006 9 The The Power of QFD The customer’s voice drives all activities Use of a set of matrices to conduct a disciplined comparison of two series of items. Provides a logical, analytic view of selected critical critical aspects of any product or service. Vehicle for cross-functional communication and crossreview. review. Promotes quality product or service Promotes quality product or service G. Duffy © 2006 development. development. 10 Short Short history of QFD 1972 Kobe Steel formalizes ends/means 1972 – Kobe Steel formalizes ends/means matrices. matrices. 1975 Ka 1975 – Kayaba Shipbuilders learns from Toyota: Shipb learns from To experiences almost total failure. (wrong team /wrong coverage) 1980 – Kayaba wins the Deming Prize for “Anticipatory Development”. Development G. Duffy © 2006 11 Short history of QFD Short 1983 – U.S. introduction in Chicago: 3M 1985 – DEC commits to pilot projects 1986 – Rapid extension into industry: Ford, IBM, Procter & Gamble, HP, Kodak… G. Duffy © 2006 12 Current Current U.S. status Penetrated all types of industry Automotive Electronics Oil & Chemical Service Healthcare Ford, GM, Chrysler, HP, Xerox, P&G, DoD, Boeing G. Duffy © 2006 13 Some major users: major users: Resurgence with Six Sigma DFSS approach. with Six Sigma DFSS approach First First discussion opportunity How do you anticipate customer requirements now? Form into discussion groups of 3 or 4. 15 minutes: 15 minutes: 1. 1. 2. 3. What works well with your current customer fulfillment process? What could work better? What might be missing? Choose spokesperson for debrief. spokesperson for debrief G. Duffy © 2006 14 II. II. QFD: What results to expect Get higher quality products to market faster and at lower cost faster and at a lower cost. Achieve customer driven product and service design. Provide a tracking system for future design or or process improvements. G. Duffy © 2006 15 Early Early results in Japanese industry Total design cycle time reduced up to 80% Quality defined during design Initial quality problems decreased Defined comparison with competitor’s products Job control points clarified Organization teamwork improved G. Duffy © 2006 16 Results Results in the United States Better understanding of customer needs Improved organization on development projects Improved introduction to production Decreased design changes late in development G. Duffy © 2006 17 Results Results in the United States Fewer manufacturing start-up problems startReputation for being serious about quality Increased business Documents product definition based on Documents product definition based on customer customer requirements in just a few sheets of p ap e r G. Duffy © 2006 18 Benefits of using the QFD development process Increased customer satisfaction and market share. Improved communication and teamwork. Increased effectiveness between purchasing and suppliers. G. Duffy © 2006 19 Benefits of using the QFD Benefits of using the QFD development process Improved designs and performance. Reduced warranty claims (as much as 50%). More stable quality assurance planning. Conveyance of engineering know-how from generation to generation generation to generation. G. Duffy © 2006 20 Business New Tools Success Core Processes Technology Infrastructure Human Element The Organization as a System G. Duffy © 2006 21 Wh What is the Systemic Approach? th The business is viewed as a holistic system, in which human resources, resources, technologies, transactional and operational processes, suppliers, and customers work toward the common goal of creating products or services which are consumed or services which are consumed without without waste or inefficiencies. G. Duffy © 2006 22 22 1-8 A Familiar System and Process Familiar System and Process G. Duffy © 2006 23 The The customer as part of the product development process product development process New products products Existing products Service and maintenance G. Duffy © 2006 24 The customer as part of the The product development process The customer’s voice drives all activities. Use matrix to conduct a disciplined comparison of two series of items of two series of items. Provides a logical, analytic view of selected critical aspects of any product or service. Vehicle for cross-functional communication and review. Promotes quality product development. G. Duffy © 2006 25 A Customer Relationship Model Customers Planning Retain Relationship Commitment Commitment Identify Needs Assessment People Lessons Learned Segment Process Personalize Communication Experience Profile Integrate Platform Product G. Duffy © 2006 26 Competitive Issues Competitive Issues Quality Cost Timeliness Market Share Productivity Profitability G. Duffy © 2006 27 A Familiar System and Process Familiar System and Process G. Duffy © 2006 28 What What is required Understanding of the customer (s) Excellent team dynamics Some quality planning tools Commitment and perseverance G. Duffy © 2006 29 House of Quality Interrelationships Technical requirements Voice of the customer Relationship matrix Technical requirement priorities G. Duffy © 2006 30 Customer requirement priorities Competitive evaluation Second Second discussion opportunity What results from employing QFD might you expect for your customer; for AMCO? expect for your customer; for AMCO? Return to discussion groups. 10 minutes: 1. 1. 2. How might the QFD concept identify and meet your customer requirements more effectively? What might get in the way or be “new”? Choose spokesperson for debrief. spokesperson for debrief G. Duffy © 2006 31 III Step by III. Step – by – Step QFD QFD A strategy for success. What does QFD do? does QFD do? Designs products based on customer demands. The “Voice of the Customer” G. Duffy © 2006 32 How does QFD do this? Breaks down customer requirements into segments and identifies means for achieving each segment each segment. Involves all parts of the organization. Uses a simultaneous product and process design. Integrates use of quality tools. No set rules: use what works for you. KISS. set rules: use what works for you KISS G. Duffy © 2006 33 Steps Steps to Improve Processes and and Services 1. Identify customer requirements. 2. Identify technical requirements. 3. Relate the customer requirements to the technical requirements requirements. 4. Conduct an evaluation of competing products or services. 5. Evaluate technical requirements and develop targets. 6. Determine which technical requirements to deploy Determine which technical requirements to deploy in in the remainder of the production/delivery process. G. Duffy © 2006 34 The QFD approach The QFD approach Customer Requirements 1 Product attributes Design requirements requirements Product variation 2 Part Characteristics Characteristics Process attributes 3 Manufacturing Operations Process variation 4 Production Requirements G. Duffy © 2006 35 Relationship Relationship among QFD and Lean Tools QFD/VoC Customer Customer requirements requirements Product conceptualizing Design Engineering Process Engineering Manufacturing Assembly Sales and Service Customer LEAN principles •SPC •Fail-safing •Quality at the source at the source •Setup reduction •Employee involvement •Education/training •Mfg. Cells Cells •Preventive maintenance G. Duffy © 2006 Product Planning Cust Req Req to Design Req. Product Design Design Req. to Part Char Part Char Process Planning Part Char to Key Proc. Process control planning Key Proc to Controls 36 Customer requirements 4 Houses of Quality 1 2 3 technical requirements component characteristics process operations G. Duffy © 2006 4 quality plan plan 37 Translating the “Who” to the “How” Translating the Who to the How Design Req’s Cust Req’s Part Characteristics Product Planning Part Deployment Deployment Design Req’s Manuf. Operations Part Characteristics Process Planning Process Planning Manuf. Operations Production Req Production Req’s Production Planning G. Duffy © 2006 38 Why Why do I have to plan in such detail? in such detail? Provides basic flow that prioritizes at every step. basic flow that prioritizes at every step Those involved see the results of a structured process process. Involvement generates “buy-in” and loyalty. “buyUses both internal and external customer valueboth internal and external customer value add and value engineering. G. Duffy © 2006 39 Third Third discussion opportunity Where do I fit into the QFD process? 5 minutes: Individual thought: What can I add to the QFD design process? Return to discussion groups. di 10 minutes: How can we work together to best use the QFD process at th QFD AMCO? AMCO? Open discussion of how and where we fit. G. Duffy © 2006 40 Where Where we are going this this afternoon 41 The The Organization Phase Equivalent of Six Sigma charter of Six Sigma charter Extent of the study (scope, time, resources) of the study (scope time resources) Why the study is being done Project selection selection Composition of the team Statement of a theme th G. Duffy © 2006 42 A planning tool, not a quality tool… planning tool not quality tool Who is involved? Product Engineering Product Management Management Marketing Finance Process Engineering Design & Development Customer Service Quality Project Management Who else? else? 43 G. Duffy © 2006 Planning Planning and organization Project: Selection Scope and targets Objectives Timing G. Duffy © 2006 44 QFD Project selection QFD Project selection Simple but not trivial Real product or service Opportunity to improve improve Not too tough Something for which data data is available Broad appeal Management support Available expertise Available market information Strong ROI G. Duffy © 2006 45 Team Team Selection Operations Training Champions, sponsors, leaders G. Duffy © 2006 46 Description Description Phase Listen to the Voice of the Customer Determine classes of customers classes of customers Understand their quality demands Translate customer quality demands into Translate customer quality demands into product product designs Matrix analysis Product characteristics G. Duffy © 2006 47 Description Description Phase New technologies New concepts Product failure modes (FMEA) (FMEA) Part failure modes G. Duffy © 2006 48 Interrelated Processes Interrelated Processes Create a System G. Duffy © 2006 49 Breakthrough Breakthrough Phase Creativity managed through the use of matrices th th Technology Reliability Cost G. Duffy © 2006 50 Product Planning Matrix Product Planning Matrix Substitute Quality Characteristics (Means/How) Customer Demands (Ends/What) Strong Relationship Medium Relationship Weak Relationship G. Duffy © 2006 51 89 89 89 90 90 90 91 91 91 92 92 92 92 92 92 92 92 92 92 93 93 93 93 93 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 95 96 96 96 96 97 97 97 97 C J O F V X L M U 05 15 19 21 23 24 28 29 35 37 10 18 28 31 42 07 19 20 32 33 35 36 39 02 31 32 42 43 16 19 20 28 2 4 5 6 Insert A Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development Program/Product Development QFD SYMPOSIUM TRANSACTIONS: 1989-1997 89.B; 90.I,J; 91.T, X, Z; 92.3, 17, 20; 93.04, 05; 93.41; 94.10; 95.11, 15; 96.2 97.7 96.33, 34, 35, 36 97 97.22, 25, 26 25 26 SEE INSERT C Y-MATRIX: INDUSTRY vs. APPLICATION INDUSTRY vs. FOCUS APPLICATION vs. FOCUS 94.2, 25; 95.17, 18; 96.22 89.I; 90.A; 91.A, R; 92.4; 93.35; 94.18; 96.24 92.12; 93.6, 38; 94.8; 95.44; 96.40 SEE INSERT B 97.36 92.13, 14; 93 11 16; 95 41 93.8, 11, 16; 95.4, 41 97.10 91.V; 94.12, 24 97.19 92.32; 93.1 95.13; 14 97.28 93.14, 37; 94.11; 95.29 93.32; 97.34 97 93.19; 94.26, 27, 28 97.23, 24 91.1; 96.14 96.10 97.30 SEE INSERT A 95.40; 96.7, 9 90.U; 92.10 93.40; 95.26; 97.P7 92.8, 18; 93.24 92.27, 36; 95.28; 97.14, 18 97.13 94.22 95.30 92.9 90.T; 91.G; 92.11, 25; 93.33; 94.31; 95.33, 34, 38 97.29 92.7, 31; 94.15; 96.11, 12 97.15, 27, 31 94.23; 95 95.35; 96, 8, 13 96 13 97.16 94.3 97.8, 9 Insert B 89 89 89 90 90 90 90 90 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 92 93 93 93 93 93 94 94 94 94 95 96 96 96 96 96 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 K L M C M O P Q C D F J K P Y 02 03 07 13 27 43 09 13 14 40 24 01 03 15 17 18 1 3 12 20 21 33 35 Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation Implementation 90.L, N, S; 92.33; 93.36; 94.6, 17, 37; 96.4 96.29 90.H, W; 91.N, W; 92.22, 30; 93.9, 30; 94.4; 95.25; 96.5, 6; 96.21, 23; 97.17, 32 89.A, E, F, G, N; 90.K; 91.S, AA; 92.34, 93.26, 29; 94.34, 38; 95.23 89 90 90 90 90 90 91 91 91 91 92 92 92 92 93 93 93 93 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 97 H B D E G R B E O Q 01 06 16 26 02 15 17 39 01 16 21 01 03 04 06 07 08 16 19 20 21 36 25 26 30 31 32 37 38 39 41 11 Insert C Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial Tutorial TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques TQM/Quality Techniques Prepared for “The QFD Handbook” by Henry (Hank) Rogers G. Duffy © 2006 INDUSTRY 52 The The Matrix of Matrices G. Duffy © 2006 53 Implementation Phase Ph Putting what you learned from the matrices to work: No two companies design the same way companies design the same No two products or services are designed the same way. All parts of the organization have a role in implementation. G. Duffy © 2006 54 Lunch Lunch and Walk Around G. Duffy © 2006 55 Check point!!! Check point!!! G. Duffy © 2006 56 Translating the “Who” to the “How” Translating the Who to the How Design Req’s Cust Req’s Part Characteristics Product Planning Part Deployment Deployment Design Req’s Manuf. Operations Part Characteristics Process Planning Process Planning Manuf. Operations Production Req Production Req’s Production Planning G. Duffy © 2006 57 House House # 1: Sales points to objectives How do marketing surveys, customer How do marketing surveys, customer requirements, requirements, strategic scenarios come into the company now? into the company now? Creative/Unbounded Breakthroughs/Unpredictable Sudden inspiration or Tedious trials? G. Duffy © 2006 58 QFD QFD provides approach to: Prioritize Organize Focus Direct Measure G. Duffy © 2006 59 Th “V The “Voice of the Customer” th A detailed plan to gather and collect customer needs and customer customer needs and customer perceptions. perceptions. The Description Phase 60 Developing Effective Customer/Client Developing Effective Customer/Client Satisfaction Satisfaction Processes G. Duffy © 2006 61 How How Do We Know What the Customer Wants? Customer Relationship Management Ask customers to list their requirements. li th Identify what measurements the customer uses. uses. Find out your customer’s highest priority. What is your customer’s biggest complaint? bi G. Duffy © 2006 62 How How Do We Know What the Customer Wants? Customer Relationship Management Relationship Management What process of yours would cause the most problems for your customers? What improvement would give your customer a competitive edge? competitive edge? Are your customer’s requirements possible? Discuss and try to agree on targets, etc. and try to agree on targets etc G. Duffy © 2006 63 Voice Voice of the Customer Make decisions on products and services. Identify product features and specifications. Develop baseline metrics on customer satisfaction. Focus on improvement plans. Identify customer satisfaction drivers. G. Duffy © 2006 64 Critical Critical to Quality (CTQ) Knowing which requirements are most critical from a customer perspective is essential essential if you have to make tradeoffs or sacrifice one requirement to meet another another. www.sixsigmaforum.com June 27, 2003 27 2003 65 Critical Critical to Quality (CTQ) Two tools that Six Sigma Black Belts typically th Si Si Bl use to identify customer CTQs are: QFD – Quality Function Deployment (preventive) (preventive) FMEA – Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (corrective) (corrective) G. Duffy © 2006 66 Types Types of C T Qs Performance Price Design Ease of use Color Defect free free What else? G. Duffy © 2006 67 Focus Focus Group Questions 1. What do you value most about the AMCO Wh th AMCO products products you currently use? 2. How can AMCO meet your customer needs How can AMCO meet your customer needs more more effectively? 3. What additional features would you like to What additional features would you like to see see in your water management system? G. Duffy © 2006 68 Focus Focus Group Suggestions What do we need to know from the customer or user? user? What is the best way to get the information? Who is the audience? is the audience? Who is the information gatherer? When do we need the information? do we need the information? How to we proceed? G. Duffy © 2006 69 Voice of the Customer Voice of the Customer Six Areas Critical to Business Outcomes 1. Importance: 2. Perceptions: 3. Characteristics: 4. Relationships: 5. Trade-offs: Trade6. Targets: “I want it very much” “ABC’s is best” How do we measure “How do we measure it?” it?” “What does it affect?” “More speed or better resolution?” “What & Why?” G. Duffy © 2006 70 A Process for Collecting VOC Data Identify customers and their needs. Collect and analyze reactive data. and analyze reactive data. Consider proactive approaches. Convert collected data into customer Convert collected data into customer needs. needs. Sort out the most important attributes Sort out the most important attributes “ctq.” Obtain specifications for the critical-tocritical quality characteristicsDuffy © 2006 . G. 71 Fourth Fourth Discussion Opportunity Opportunity What can slow down the design process? th ReRe-form into groups of 3 or 4 15 minutes: What gets in the way of identifying and implementing the best possible design to meet customer best poss des to custo requirements? List the major barriers to effectiveness If you were “King” or “Queen”, what would be the best possible situation AMCO could be in to meet customer product and service needs? meet customer product and service needs? Debrief: Choose a spokesperson to share ideas. G. Duffy © 2006 72 Possible Possible “speed bumps” Communication Language Job transfers or attrition Documentation (quality or paucity) Distribution of effort Leadership Accountability What else? G. Duffy © 2006 73 Quality Function Deployment Qualit Step 1 G. Duffy © 2006 74 Model for VoC to VoP Model for VoC to VoP* Breakthrough Phase Corporate Communications Circle Customer Sales Market Research Research Product Planner * Voice of the Process G. Duffy © 2006 75 Distribution Production Worker Manufacturing Engineer Design Engineer QC QA QM Relationship Relationship among QFD and Lean Tools QFD/VoC Customer Customer requirements requirements Product conceptualization Design engineering Process engineering Manufacturing Assembly Sales and service Customer LEAN principles •SPC •Fail-safing •Quality at the source at the source •Setup reduction •Employee involvement •Education/training •Mfg. Cells Cells •Preventive maintenance G. Duffy © 2006 Product planning Cust Req Req to Design Req. Product design Design Req. to Part Char Part Char Process planning Part Char to Key Proc. Process control planning Key Proc to Controls 76 IV IV. Applying QFD at AMCO QFD at AMCO Some key points: The method looks easy, but requires effort Things often seem obvious – until you try to write them down. If there are no rough spots, you probably aren’t doing it right. Focus on the customer. th Charts are only a means to an objective, not an end in themselves end in themselves. Implementation Phase G. Duffy © 2006 77 Define 1 Customer Requirements House of Quality House of Quality Group Customer Requirements 2 Cust. Req’t. 3 Competitive Assessment Technical 6 Competitive Assessment Assessment Define Product Specifications 4 Relationship Matrix 5 Correlation Matrix 8 Contrast 7 3 G. Duffy © 2006 Target Values 9 6 Analyze & Establish priorities 78 Reality Reality of the process: 80% of the work is done outside of the meetings. It usually takes longer than we expect. Limits are appropriate for data gathering and pp analysis. Give projections of savings as you go. Do the analysis at the end with help from Marketing and Cost Accounting. Much like Design For Six Sigma method. G. Duffy © 2006 79 Building Building House 1 “Box 1” and “2” is the core of this house. Use the input from Voice of the Customer. Employ “Box 5”, “8”, and “9” for each house. Who is involved in “building” this house? Why? Use Organization Deployment before starting th the individual product or service QFD activity. QFD G. Duffy © 2006 80 Organization Deployment Organization Deployment Uses QFD process to map different Uses QFD process to map different organizational organizational functions, like President, Marketing and Planning, Development, Training, Customer Customer Service, etc. Often Often used with a Responsibility Matrix to clarify organizational organizational roles. Tools: Flow Chart Matrix G. Duffy © 2006 81 Fifth Discussion Opportunity Fifth Discussion Opportunity How does the concept of QFD align with your How does the concept of QFD align with your current current AMCO strategic plan? ReRe-form into groups of 3 or 4 15 minutes: What is your strategic planning process? How do you identify customers and their needs currently? How might QFD support your planning efforts? Debrief: Choose a spokesperson to prompt di discussion.. G. Duffy © 2006 82 Customer Deployment Customer Deployment Associates organizational goals (e.g. profit, utilization rate, etc.) into core competencies (skill, location, etc.) into customer attributes. Helps segment potential customer base to focus on the needs of those customers who can best help us achieve our goals. Often focuses on niche markets with competitive advantage. Tools: Analytic Hierarchy Process, Matrix, Matrix Data Analysis Charts Data Analysis Charts. G. Duffy © 2006 83 House of Quality Interrelationships Technical requirements Voice of the customer Relationship matrix Technical requirement priorities G. Duffy © 2006 84 Customer requirement priorities Competitive evaluation House House #1 “West Wing” “Voice of the Customer” Deployment of the Customer Deployment Tables used to record customer data, use characteristics quality consistency reliability characteristics, quality, consistency, reliability, safety, etc. Identify spoken unspoken and unrecognized Identify, spoken, unspoken, and unrecognized needs. needs. Tools: Tables Tables G. Duffy © 2006 85 House #1 to House #2 House #1 to House #2 “Box 3” and “6”, using “Box 7” offers the Gap analysis. Product specifications feed from “Box 4”. House #2 converts product specifications to specific component requirements. Who is involved in building this house? Why? G. Duffy © 2006 86 House #2 Design requirements to House #2 Design requirements to parts parts characteristics This further definition is accomplished by treating each “How” as a “What” and defining a new, more detailed list of How’s required to new more detailed list of How required to support support the What’s. Si Similar to the process of translating system level th specifications specifications into part level specifications. Continues until every item on the list is it th li actionable and validated. G. Duffy © 2006 87 A fly in the ointment… fly Unfortunately, this process is complicated by the fact that through each level of by the fact that through each level of refinement refinement some of the How’s affect more than one What, and can even adversely affect one another affect one another. Attempting to clearly trace the Attempting to clearly trace the relationships relationships of What’s and How’s becomes quite confusing at this point. G. Duffy © 2006 88 Quality Quality Deployment Translates customer demanded quality and priorities into measurable service or product quality quality attributes (e.g. accuracy, responsiveness, atmosphere, privacy, etc.) Targets can be set for these attributes to ensure customer satisfaction. Tools: Affinity Diagram, Hierarchy Tree, Prioritization Matrix, Tables, Analytic Hierarchy Prioritization Matrix, Tables, Analytic Hierarchy Process. Process. G. Duffy © 2006 89 House of Quality Interrelationships Technical requirements Voice of of the customer Relationship matrix Technical requirement priorities G. Duffy © 2006 90 Customer requirement priorities Competitive evaluation The QFD Pathway or Excel The QFD Pathway or Excel G. Duffy © 2006 91 QFD Matrices and Tables QFD Matrices and Tables VOCT A 1, 2, 3… Connections Inputs Outputs References Supplier Input Process Output Customer G. Duffy © 2006 92 House House #3: Part Characteristics to Key Process Engineering and Human Communication Engineering and Human Communication process process flows. Supply chain considerations: chain considerations: Purchasing Internal and external customer/supplier identification. Specific resource, inventory, logistics, production, service, admin, etc. functions. Sales, marketing, customer relationship mgt. Accept accountability and authority at lowest level possible. Who is involved in building this house? Why? G. Duffy © 2006 93 House House #3: Part Characteristics to Key Process Task Deployment: Breakdown critical jobs into tasks and steps. Assign accountability and empower. Identify interrelationships. Set milestones, tollgates, measurements. Blueprinting Tables G. Duffy © 2006 94 Tools: House #4: Key Process to Controls House Document the processes. Identify and integrate effective measures. and integrate effective measures. Establish the Balanced Score Card or frequent dashboard reporting. Define and structure feedback loop from frontfrontline to front-office. frontIncorporate recognition, rewards and indicators of significant change. Who is involved in building this house? Why? G. Duffy © 2006 95 So, So, what happens next? Validate customer requirements. Review current design assumptions. Choose improvement or breakthrough approach. Update engineering and product designs. Drill down designs into characteristics, processes processes and controls. G. Duffy © 2006 96 Sixth Discussion Opportunity Sixth Discussion Opportunity Targeting and Accepting Action Items Form into “functional groups” 15 minutes: What parts of the design and build process is working just fine right now? What parts need to be studied and improved? Who owns each of these process areas? How can the organization assist the process owners th th in augmenting current effectiveness? Choose a spokesperson to share ideas. spokesperson to share ideas G. Duffy © 2006 97 Wrap Wrap-up and Action and Action What are the short term actions coming What are the short term actions coming out out of today? What longer-term opportunities have longer term opportunities have surfaced? surfaced? Wh Who will champion the next steps to make th sure we do not lose the momentum? How can AMCO benefit from what we have done today? G. Duffy © 2006 98 ...
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