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The%20Seven%20Management%20and%20Planning%20Tools - The...

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The Seven Management and Planning Tools To illustrate the Seven Management and Planning Tools, we present hypothetical high- technology consumer electronics company, MicroTech. MicroTech’s mission is to design and manufacture miniature electronics products utilizing radio frequency technologies, digital signal processing technologies, and state-of-the- art surface mount manufacturing techniques. Affinity Diagrams The affinity diagram is a tool for organizing a large number of ideas, opinions, and facts relating to a broad problem or subject area. In developing a vision statement, for example, senior management might conduct a brainstorming session to develop a list of ideas to incorporate into the vision. This list might include low product maintenance low production costs satisfied employees innovative product features courteous order entry high return on investment low price constant technology innovation quick delivery high quality growth in shareholder value motivated employees teamwork unique products responsive technical support small, lightweight designs personal employee growth Once a large number of ideas have been generated, they can be grouped according to their “affinity” or relationship to each other. An affinity diagram for the preceding list is shown in Figure 1. Figure 1 Affinity Diagram for MicroTech (5E Fig 5.8) 1
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Interrelationship Digraph An interrelationship digraph identifies and explores causal relationships among related concepts or ideas. It shows that every idea can be logically linked with more than one other idea at a time, and allows for “lateral thinking” rather than “linear thinking.” This technique is often used after the affinity diagram had clarified issues and problems. Figure 2 shows an example of how the key strategic factors for MicroTech relate to one another. The elements having the most net outward-pointing arrows (number out minus
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