1440Ch03Trans - Chapter 3 Stoichiometry: Calculations with...

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Chapter 3 Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations
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Law of Conservation of Mass “We may lay it down as an incontestable axiom that, in all the operations of art and nature, nothing is created; an equal amount of matter exists both before and after the experiment. Upon this principle, the whole art of performing chemical experiments depends.” --Antoine Lavoisier, 1789
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Chemical Equations Concise representations of chemical reactions
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Anatomy of a Chemical Equation CH 4 ( g ) + 2 O 2 ( g ) CO 2 ( g ) + 2 H 2 O ( g )
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Anatomy of a Chemical Equation Reactants appear on the left side of the equation. CH 4 ( g ) + 2 O 2 ( g ) CO 2 ( g ) + 2 H 2 O ( g )
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Anatomy of a Chemical Equation Products appear on the right side of the equation. CH 4 ( g ) + 2 O 2 ( g ) CO 2 ( g ) + 2 H 2 O ( g )
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Anatomy of a Chemical Equation The states of the reactants and products are written in parentheses to the right of each compound. CH 4 ( g ) + 2 O 2 ( g ) CO 2 ( g ) + 2 H 2 O ( g )
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Anatomy of a Chemical Equation Coefficients are inserted to balance the equation. CH 4 ( g ) + 2 O 2 ( g ) CO 2( g ) + 2 H 2 O ( g )
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Subscripts and Coefficients Give Different Information • Subscripts tell the number of atoms of each element in a molecule
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Subscripts and Coefficients Give Different Information • Subscripts tell the number of atoms of each element in a molecule • Coefficients tell the number of molecules
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Writing and Balancing Reactions •F o r m a t Reactants Products • Balancing 1) Formulas are unchanged. 2) Balance using coefficients before formulas. 3) If fractions appear, multiply all coefficients in entire equation. Lowest whole number combination of coefficients.
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CS 2 + O 2 CO 2 + SO 2 NH 3 + O 2 NO + H 2 O C 3 H 8 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O C 6 H 6 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O 2 3 3 22 5 2 4 NH 3 + 5 O 2 4 NO + 6 H 2 O 34 5 63 15 2 2 C 6 H 6 + 15 O 2 12 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O
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Ba(OH) 2 + HCl BaCl 2 + H 2 O Al + O 2 Al 2 O 3 2 2 2 3 4
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Reaction Types
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Combination Reactions • Examples: N 2 ( g ) + 3 H 2 ( g ) ⎯⎯→ 2 NH 3 ( g ) C 3 H 6 ( g ) + Br 2 ( l ) ⎯⎯→ C 3 H 6 Br 2 ( l ) 2 Mg ( s ) + O 2 ( g ) ⎯⎯→ 2 MgO ( s ) •T w o o r m o r e substances react to form one product Reaction with Oxygen
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Decomposition Reactions • Examples: CaCO 3 ( s ) ⎯⎯→ CaO ( s ) + CO 2 ( g ) 2 KClO 3 ( s ) ⎯⎯→ 2 KCl ( s ) + O 2 ( g ) 2 NaN 3 ( s ) ⎯⎯→ 2 Na ( s ) + 3 N 2 ( g ) • One substance breaks down into two or more substances
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Combustion Reactions • Examples: CH 4 ( g ) + 2 O 2 ( g ) ⎯⎯→ CO 2 ( g ) + 2 H 2 O ( g ) C 3 H 8 ( g ) + 5 O 2 ( g ) ⎯⎯→ 3 CO 2 ( g ) + 4 H 2 O ( g ) • Rapid reactions that produce a flame • Most often involve hydrocarbons reacting with oxygen in the air
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The Mole • The mole (mol) is the amount of substance that has as many molecules of formula units as the number of atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12 • That number is called Avogadro’s Number •N A = 6.02 x 10 23
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Homework 3.11, 3.19, 3.21, 3.33, 3.49, 3.59, 3.73, 3.78 [(a) 232g, (b) 88.8%]
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This note was uploaded on 08/22/2010 for the course CHS 1440 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '06 term at University of Central Florida.

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1440Ch03Trans - Chapter 3 Stoichiometry: Calculations with...

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