1440CH04Trans - Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution...

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Aqueous Reactions Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry
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Aqueous Reactions
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Aqueous Reactions Solutions: • Homogeneous mixtures of two or more pure substances. They can be gas, liquid, or solid • The solvent is present in greatest abundance. • All other substances are solutes .
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Aqueous Reactions Dissociation • When an ionic substance dissolves in water, the solvent pulls the individual ions from the crystal and solvates them. • This process is called dissociation .
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Aqueous Reactions Electrolytes • Substances that dissociate into ions when dissolved in water. •A nonelectrolyte may dissolve in water, but it does not dissociate into ions when it does so.
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Aqueous Reactions Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes Soluble ionic compounds tend to be electrolytes.
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Aqueous Reactions Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes Molecular compounds tend to be nonelectrolytes, except for acids and bases.
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Aqueous Reactions Electrolytes •A strong electrolyte dissociates completely when dissolved in water. weak electrolyte only dissociates partially when dissolved in water.
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Aqueous Reactions Strong Electrolytes Are… • Strong acids
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Aqueous Reactions Strong Electrolytes Are… • Strong acids • Strong bases
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Aqueous Reactions Strong Electrolytes Are… • Strong acids • Strong bases • Soluble ionic salts
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Aqueous Reactions Acid/Base definitions • Definition #1: Arrhenius (traditional) Acids – produce H + ions (or hydronium ions H 3 O + ) Bases – produce OH - ions (problem: some bases don’t have hydroxide ions!)
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Aqueous Reactions Arrhenius acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) in water Arrhenius base is a substance that produces OH - in water
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Aqueous Reactions Acid/Base Definitions • Definition #2: Brønsted – Lowry Acids – proton donor Bases – proton acceptor A “proton” is really just a hydrogen atom that has lost it’s electron!
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Aqueous Reactions A Brønsted-Lowry acid is a proton donor A Brønsted-Lowry base is a proton acceptor conjugate base conjugate acid base acid
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Aqueous Reactions Acids: • Substances that increase the concentration of H + when dissolved in water (Arrhenius). • Proton donors (Brønsted–Lowry).
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Aqueous Reactions Acids There are only seven strong acids: • Hydrochloric (HCl) • Hydrobromic (HBr) • Hydroiodic (HI) • Nitric (HNO 3 ) • Sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ) • Chloric (HClO 3 ) • Perchloric (HClO 4 )
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Aqueous Reactions Some Properties of Acids ; Produce H + (as H 3 O + ) ions in water (the hydronium ion is a hydrogen ion attached to a water molecule) ; Taste sour ; Corrode metals ; Electrolytes ; React with bases to form a salt and water
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Aqueous Reactions Acid and Bases Acid and Bases
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Aqueous Reactions Acid and Bases Acid and Bases
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Aqueous Reactions Acid Nomenclature Flowchart hydro- prefix -ic ending 2 elements -ate becomes -ic -ite -ous no hydro- prefix 3 elements ACIDS start with 'H'
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Aqueous Reactions Acids Oxoacid (oxyacid) – hydrogen, oxygen, and other element (center) 1) –ate –ic acid 2) –ite –ous acid sulfate sulfuric acid hypochlorite hypochlorous acid SO 4 2– H
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This note was uploaded on 08/22/2010 for the course CHS 1440 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '06 term at University of Central Florida.

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1440CH04Trans - Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution...

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