1440ch06trans - Chapter 6 Electronic Structure of Atoms...

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Electronic Structure of Atoms Chapter 6 Electronic Structure of Atoms
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Electronic Structure of Atoms Waves • To understand the electronic structure of atoms, one must understand the nature of electromagnetic radiation . • The distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves is the wavelength ( λ ) .
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Electronic Structure of Atoms Waves • The number of waves passing a given point per unit of time is the frequency ( ν ) . • For waves traveling at the same velocity, the longer the wavelength, the smaller the frequency.
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Electronic Structure of Atoms Electromagnetic Radiation • All electromagnetic radiation travels at the same velocity: the speed of light ( c ), 3.00 × 10 8 m/s. •T h e r e f o r e , c = λν
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Electronic Structure of Atoms The Nature of Energy • The wave nature of light does not explain how an object can glow when its temperature increases. • Max Planck explained it by assuming that energy comes in packets called quanta .
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Electronic Structure of Atoms The Nature of Energy • Therefore, if one knows the wavelength of light, one can calculate the energy in one photon, or packet, of that light: c = λν E = h ν
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Electronic Structure of Atoms The Nature of Energy Another mystery involved the emission spectra observed from energy emitted by atoms and molecules.
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Electronic Structure of Atoms Spectrum of white light
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Electronic Structure of Atoms Spectrum of Excited Hydrogen Gas Spectrum of Excited Hydrogen Gas • One does not observe a continuous spectrum, as one gets from a white light source. • Only a line spectrum of discrete wavelengths is observed.
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Electronic Structure of Atoms Excited atoms can emit light. The Electric Pickle The Electric Pickle • Here the solution in a pickle is excited electrically. The Na + ions in the pickle juice give off light characteristic of that element.
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Electronic Structure of Atoms Qutanization of Energy Max Planck (1858 Max Planck (1858 - - 1947) 1947) E = h • ν E = h E = h ν ν Energy of radiation is proportional to Energy of radiation is proportional to frequency frequency An object can gain or lose energy by An object can gain or lose energy by absorbing or emitting radiant energy in absorbing or emitting radiant energy in QUANTA QUANTA . . h = Planck h = Planck s constant = 6.6262 x 10 s constant = 6.6262 x 10 -34 34 J J s s
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Electronic Structure of Atoms Bohr Bohr s theory was a great s theory was a great accomplishment. accomplishment. Received Nobel Prize, 1922 Received Nobel Prize, 1922 Problems with theory Problems with theory theory only successful for H. theory only successful for H. introduced quantum idea introduced quantum idea artificially. artificially. So, we go on to So, we go on to MODERN QUANTUM MODERN QUANTUM MECHANICS or WAVE MECHANICS or WAVE MECHANICS MECHANICS Niels Niels Bohr Bohr (1885 (1885 -1962) 1962) Atomic Line Spectra Atomic Line Spectra
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Electronic Structure of Atoms The Nature of Energy Niels Bohr adopted Planck’s assumption and explained these phenomena in this way: 1. Electrons in an atom can only occupy certain orbits (corresponding to certain energies).
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This note was uploaded on 08/22/2010 for the course CHS 1440 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '06 term at University of Central Florida.

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1440ch06trans - Chapter 6 Electronic Structure of Atoms...

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