class04 - Foundations, Part II: Skinner Evaluation •...

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Unformatted text preview: Foundations, Part II: Skinner Evaluation • Midterm (30%) • Final (35%) • Weekly reading responses (15%) • Book review (20%) • Experimental participation 1 Evaluation • Midterm (30%) • Final (35%) • Weekly reading responses (15%) • Book review (20%) • Experimental participation Weekly reading responses • Each Monday, in class, you will get a question or questions • You need to write a reply, between 300 - 500 words • Must be emailed to your TF by midnight Saturday • Late submissions will not be accepted • Pass/fail -- the replies have to be clearly written, have to answer the question(s), and have to show some grasp of the material, usually from the readings 2 Weekly reading responses • There will be 10 responses, each worth 1.5% of your grade • If you get no reply from your TF, you are doing fine. If you fail (or don’t submit a response), your TF will contact you • The responses are expected to be your own work Reading Response #1 • Give a Freudian explanation for alcoholism. Then give a behaviorist explanation. Finally, invent a behaviorist treatment to get people to stop drinking 3 Who is my TF? A - Ch Co - G H-K L - Pi Pl - S T-Z Sunny Bang, sunjung.bang@yale.edu Erik Cheries, erik.cheries@yale.edu Jane Erickson, jane.erickson@yale.edu Koleen McCrink, koleen.mccrink@yale.edu Izzat Jarudi, izzat.jarudi@yale.edu Greg Laun, gregory.laun@yale.edu Foundations, Part II: Skinner 4 Freud meets Darwin: Why would an unconscious evolve? Deception How to be a good liar Self-deception 5 Behaviorism 1. Emphasis on learning Behaviorism 1. Emphasis on learning 2. Anti-mentalism unscientific = desires, wishes, goals, beliefs, emotions, etc. scientific = observables: stimulus, response, environment, etc. 6 Behaviorism 1. Emphasis on learning 2. Anti-mentalism unscientific = desires, wishes, goals, beliefs, emotions, etc. scientific = observables: stimulus, response, environment, etc. 3. No differences across species Three learning principles that are said to explain everything 7 The simplest form of learning: Habituation What is it? -- a decline in the tendency to respond to stimuli that are familiar due to repeated exposure e.g., clock ticking, traffic noise, trains What’s it for? -- An adaptive mechanism to keep us focusing on new objects and events Classical conditioning What is it? -- the learning of an association between one stimulus and another stimulus 8 Classical conditioning Unconditioned Inborn and innate UStimulus --> Uresponse US -> UR Conditioned Learned through association Cstimulus -> Cresponse CS -> CR Classical conditioning • Repeated pairings of US and CS will give rise to a CR response • Reinforced trials vs. unreinforced trials • Experimental extinction 9 Classical conditioning • Repeated pairings of US and CS will give rise to a CR response • Reinforced trials vs. unreinforced trials • Experimental extinction • Stimulus generalization The scope of classical conditioning • Crabs, fish , cockroaches, etc. • Humans – Fear – Hunger – Sex – Fetishes 10 What is classical conditioning for? Old theory: Association Classical conditioning is strongest when UCS and CS are simultaneous UCR and CR are identical What is classical conditioning for? Better theory: Preparation Sensitivity to a cue that an event is about to happen allows you to prepare for that event 1. 2. Optimal timing between CS and UCS? CS immediately before UCS (bell then food) Nature of the CR? Preparation for the US (saliva) 11 Instrumental conditioning What is it? -- learning the relationships between actions and rewards/punishments What’s it for? -- learning what works and what doesn’t (classical: passive; instrumental: voluntary) 12 LAW OF EFFECT: The tendency to perform an action is increased if rewarded; weakened if it is not. Skinner: Extending operant conditioning 13 How to train a pig • Positive reinforcement • Negative reinforcement • Punishment How to train a pig to dance • Shaping 14 How to train a pig to dance for poker chips Link up the chips to an innate reward through classical conditioning How to train a pig to dance … forever • Schedules of reinforcement Fixed vs. Variable Ratio vs. Interval 15 The Partial Reinforcement Effect How to make people dance Behaviorism: Scientific assessment 16 Is it true that everything is learned? • No, there is considerable evidence for innate (unlearned) knowledge Is it true that talking about mental states is unscientific? • No -- other sciences (e.g., physics) talk about unobservables -- it makes sense to explain a complex and intelligent mechanism in terms of internal representations 17 Is it true that animals need reinforcement and punishment to learn? No 18 Is it true that there are no special constraints on learning? No, • Natural responses • Food aversion (Garcia effect) taste & nausea vs. taste & electric shock • Phobias Chomsky’s critique: When it comes to humans, behaviorist notions are so vague as to pure story-telling, not science. Unfalsifiable 19 Why do we ….? • • • • • Talk to ourselves Imitate sounds Create art Give bad news to an enemy Fantasize about pleasant situations Skinner: It’s all reinforcement • • • • • Talk to ourselves Imitate sounds Create art Give bad news to an enemy Fantasize about pleasant situations 20 Chomsky: Vague, unfalsifiable • • • • • Talk to ourselves Imitate sounds Create art Give bad news to an enemy Fantasize about pleasant situations LAW OF EFFECT: The tendency to perform an action is increased if rewarded; weakened if it is not. 21 The legacy of behaviorism • Richer understanding of some important learning mechanisms • Powerful techniques for training, especially for non-verbal creatures 22 ...
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