class05 - Cognitive Development Reading Response #1 •...

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Unformatted text preview: Cognitive Development Reading Response #1 • Give a Freudian explanation for alcoholism. Then give a behaviorist explanation. Finally, invent a behaviorist treatment to get people to stop drinking 1 Who is my TF? (corrected) A - Colb Coll - G H - Lio Lip - O P - Star Stau - Z Sunny Bang, sunjung.bang@yale.edu Erik Cheries, erik.cheries@yale.edu Jane Erickson, jane.erickson@yale.edu Koleen McCrink, koleen.mccrink@yale.edu Izzat Jarudi, izzat.jarudi@yale.edu Greg Laun, greg.laun@yale.edu Cognitive Development 2 Big Questions 1. Morality 2. Continuity 3 Big Questions 3. Knowledge Empiricism v. Nativism v. Constructivism Jean Piaget • 1896-1980 • Genetic epistemology • Theories • Methods • Observations 4 Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development • Piaget believed that “children are active thinkers, constantly trying to construct more advanced understandings of the world” • Little scientists • These “understandings” are in the form of structures he called schemas Development of Schemas • Schemas are frameworks that develop to help organize knowledge • Assimilation - process of taking new information or a new experience and fitting it into an already existing schema • Accommodation - process by which existing schemas are changed or new schemas are created in order to fit new information 5 Piaget’s approach • Primary method was to ask children to solve problems and to question them about the reasoning behind their solutions • Discovered that children think in radically different ways than adults • Proposed that development occurs as a series of ‘stages’ differing in how the world is understood Sensorimotor Stage (birth - 2) • Information is gained through the senses and motor actions • In this stage child perceives and manipulates but does not reason • Object permanence is acquired 6 Object Permanence • The understanding that objects exist independent of one’s actions or perceptions of them • Before 6 months infants act as if objects removed from sight cease to exist – Can be surprised by disappearance / reappearance of a face (peek-a-boo) • Then, failure at A-not-B task Preoperational Stage (2-7 years) • Emergence of symbolic thought • Egocentrism 7 Preoperational Stage (2-7 years) • Emergence of symbolic thought • Egocentrism • Lack the concept of conservation Concrete Operational Stage (7-12 years) • Understanding of mental operations leading to increasingly logical thought • Less egocentric • But .. inability to reason abstractly or hypothetically 8 Formal Operational Stage (age 12 - adulthood) • Abstract and scientific reasoning Piaget: Scientific evaluation Highly positive: -- interesting & falsifiable claims -- rich theoretical framework -- striking findings 9 Piaget: Scientific evaluation Theoretical: Does he really explain development? Methodological: Limitations of Q&A Factual: What do infants and children really know? The modern science of infant cognition 10 Methods for studying infants • Brain waves • Sucking • Looking -- preference -- habituation & surprise Infant understanding of the physical world The case of object permanence 11 Much understanding of the physical world is there from the very start But not everything … How do we explain development? • Neural maturation • Problems with inhibition -- A-not-B • The accumulation of knowledge 12 Infant understanding of the social world Social baby Social prediction by babies (with Valerie Kuhlmeier & Karen Wynn) • 9-month-olds & 12-month-olds • Shown movies in which one character “helps” a ball achieve a goal, and another character “hinders” the ball • Then shown test movies in which the ball interacts with these characters in an entirely different situation • Do babies expect the ball to behave differently with regard to the helper vs. the hinderer? 13 Some understanding of the social world may be there from the very start But there are also some striking limitations … 14 Open question I Why do children do so poorly at these social tasks? They need to learn more about minds Vs. They have the right knowledge but suffer from problems with inhibition and action Open question II What is the relationship between different sorts of development? General changes in how children think (Freud, Piaget) Vs. Separate modules (Chomsky, Fodor) 15 A modular conception of development • Separate partially pre-wired systems for reasoning about the physical and social world • Innate knowledge • Constrained development A damaged module: Autism • • • • • • About 1 in 1,000 Mostly boys Lack of social connectedness Language impairment Treat people “as objects” Mindblindness 16 Open question III If there are modules, what are they? • Physics and people, but also … -- artifacts -- sociology -- biology? Open question IV Are there any profound general differences between the minds of children and adults? -- effect of language? 17 Why study development? “Everything is the way it is because it got that way.” -- D’Arcy Thompson 18 ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/24/2010 for the course PSYC 110 taught by Professor Karenwynn during the Spring '08 term at Yale.

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