Outline- lecture 7-war - Non Cooperative Games (players can...

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( players can cooperate, but any cooperation must be self- enforcing .) Conflicting and competing preferences (sometimes zero sum games) Prisoner’s dilemma (suggests that Adam Smith was wrong—if we all follow our own interests, the outcome will be sub-optimal) Player B Player A DC > CC > DD > CD (India and Pakistan example… both countries are better off with no nuclear proliferation, but as they are in conflict, the best outcome for them (individually) is having a bomb and the other not having it… the worst is if they both have the bomb —neither is better off, and both are poorer) Prisoner’s Dilemma Decision Tree same as table, just a different way of writing. Cooperate Defect Cooperate 2,2 -2,5 Defect 5, -2 0,0 Outcome is not stable, as there is always the incentive to try and trade up. The Nash equilibrium is a solution concept of a game involving two or more players, in which no player has anything to gain by changing only his or her own strategy unilaterally. If each player has chosen a strategy and no player can benefit by changing his or her strategy while the other players keep theirs unchanged, then the current set of strategy choices and the corresponding payoffs constitute a Nash equilibrium. ‘Defect’ is the dominant strategy—this strategy is your best response regardless of the strategic choice of your opponent. It dominates all other available strategies. The Evolution of Cooperation Robert Axelrod The Evolution of Cooperation (1984) Tried to use a computer to see whether playing Prisoner’s Dilemma over and over again would reveal the best way to play Prisoner’s Dilemma Tit for Tat (nice, retaliatory, forgiving) >> develops cooperation. Silent (C)
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This note was uploaded on 08/24/2010 for the course POL 208 taught by Professor Wong during the Winter '08 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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Outline- lecture 7-war - Non Cooperative Games (players can...

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