Retain Information

Retain Information - MEMORYISLEARNINGTHATPERSISTS...

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MEMORY IS LEARNING THAT PERSISTS   Why We Forget 1. Negative self-concept o We think of ourselves forgetting things. 2. We have not learned the material well . o If something is to be retained, it must be correctly, clearly and forcibly  impressed on the mind.  o We must give it the necessary attention and interest.  Self-questioning and  spaced or periodic reviews are essential. 3. Psychological reasons: defensive forgetting o Generally, unpleasant things are remembered better than pleasant things  (especially by pessimists) and both pleasant and unpleasant things are  remembered better than materials we are indifferent to. Freudian theory holds  that unpleasant things are often barred from consciousness. This is often referred  to as active forgetting. 4. Disuse o Memories fade away rapidly when not reviewed or used. The curve of  forgetting is like a playground slide; we forget most immediately after we learn  -in the first 24 hours; then it proceeds slowly. Motor learning seems to be better  retained than verbal learning because a motor act has to be completely done to  be done at all and so requires a higher degree of organization and competency  which involves over-learning. o But "forgotten" material can be relearned in less time than is required for  the original learning, even after many years' disuse. EVEN MATERIAL THAT WE  DO NOT RELEARN HAS UNDOUBTEDLY BEEN TRANSFORMED INTO  ATTITUDES AND VALUES THAT FORM THE FOUNDATIONS OF OUR  JUDGMENT. EDUCATION PAYS IN SPITE OF ALL THE DETAILS THAT HAVE  BEEN FORGOTTEN. o Forgetting through disuse is normal and unavoidable. The mind is a  marvelous instrument, but not a perfect instrument. 5. Interference o Forgetting was formerly thought to be mainly the result of disuse, but now  it is believed that disuse may be a less important factor than interference due to  emotional problems, anxieties, distractions, intense concentration on something  else, and intellectual interference. o Intellectual interference or mental overcrowding can be minimized if we  reflect on our reading and experiences, understand them, clarify them, associate,  synthesize and organize them so they will not interfere with each other. Above  all, we must avoid pushing, cramming and overcrowding our learning hours with  unorganized material. o Forgetting caused by later learning is called  retroactive inhibition . There is  more interference between two similar subjects than between two unlike  subjects. (Follow study of history with chemistry rather than English history or  literature. )
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o Since we cannot be awake without thinking, it should follow that there is 
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This note was uploaded on 08/24/2010 for the course POL 208 taught by Professor Wong during the Winter '08 term at University of Toronto.

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Retain Information - MEMORYISLEARNINGTHATPERSISTS...

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