notes CDE 430

notes CDE 430 - CDE 430 Basic concepts of infant behavior...

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CDE 430 Basic concepts of infant behavior and development Should babies sleep in the same bed as their parents? Key issues in Human Development =Basic assumptions about infants/human nature? Are children inherently good, bad or neither William Blake- Bad Jean-Jacques Rousseau- good John Locke- neither What influences children - Nature vs. nurture What does development look like? - continuous- change occurs gradually over time (tree) - Discontinuous0 changes are more abrupt or categorical - Critical and sensitive periods (butterfly) What role do infants play in their own development? - Active vs. passive development Active- infants impact their own development Passive- Infants are shaped by external forces. Theories of child development - Your theory drives the way you approach infant development Learning theories (John Watson- Classical Conditioning) 1. Classical conditioning- associative/respondent learning. You take an unlearned stimulus/response and pair it with something neutral that will get associated with the unlearned stimulus. You need to create new associations between bedtime and comfort (Baby Albert Experiment). 2. Operant Learning- (BF Skinner Behaviorism). Rewards and Punishments. Use both positive and negative reinforcement. 3. Social Learning- (Albert Bandura)- Social learning theory- we learn from modeling others’ behavior. This learning is especially effective if we observe a behavior and its consequences Punishment Positive Punishment- giving something aversive (scolding or spanking) Negative Punishment- Taking away something good (play time) From Social Learning What are the positions for the main issues in infancy for Learning Theories? 1. Good, bad, or neither? Neither, blankslate. 2. Nature Vs. Nurture? Nurture
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3. Continuous vs. discontinuous? Continuous (learning process is the same over development). 4. Passive vs. Active? Passive (infant takes no role and is shaped by the environment). Psychodynamic Theories- Sigmund Freud o Behavior is motivated by inner forces, memories, and inner conflicts o Psychosexual developmental stages (gratification is obtained through particular biological functions and body parts) o Early experiences carry over into adulthood Developmental Stages ==> Oral- Mouth (gratification, development- security) ==> Anal- toilet training (deals with autonomy and independence) ==> Phallic stage- The child develops a strong desire for parent of opposite sex. (Oedipal and Electra Complex) ==> Latency Period ==> Genital Stage Psychodynamic Theories 1. Good, Bad, or Neither? Selfish, Sexual (bad) 2. Nature vs. Nurture? Both, Nature because everyone goes through stages but Nurture because experiences have long term effects 3. Continuous vs. discontinuous? Discontinuous because of the stages. 4. Passive or active? Passive
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2008 for the course CDE 430 taught by Professor Alysonshapiro during the Spring '08 term at ASU.

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notes CDE 430 - CDE 430 Basic concepts of infant behavior...

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