Lecture 2.8 Notes

Lecture 2.8 Notes - Biol 401 Biosynthesis anabolism Energy...

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2/8/10 Biosynthesis: anabolism Energy for biosynthesis of monomers/polymers provided by ATP/pmf Biosynthesis of sugars and polysaccharides polysaccharides key constituents of cell walls polysaccharide backbone of peptidoglycan o hexose (6 carbon) monomers derivatives of glucose pentose sugars in backbone of DNA (deoxyribose) and RNA (ribose) Activation of glucose for polysaccharide synthesis: polysaccharides synthesized from either ADPG or UDPG adenosinediphosphoglucose (ADPG) – precursor for glycogen synthesis uridine diphosphoglucose (UDPG) – biosynthesis of other polysaccharides ( e.g. peptidoglycan backbone and LPS) Gluconeogenesis – cells utilizing carbon sources other than glucose can use phosphoenolpyruvate as starting material for glucose biosynthesis (Fig 5.25) Pentose biosynthesis: pentoses formed by removal of one carbon from glucose Biosynthesis of amino acids and nucleotides Monomers of proteins: amino acids o carbon skeletons of amino acids come almost exclusively from intermediates of glycolysis or the citric acid cycle o amino groups derived from inorganic nitrogen source (e.g. NH 3 ) o ammonia incorporation into glutamate and glutamine via glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase, respectively. o Transaminases utilize glutamate/glutamine for synthesis of other amino acids Monomers of Nucleic acids: Nucleotides o Complex biochemistry for synthesis of pyrimidines and purines Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids and Lipids o Synthesis 2 carbons at a time by acyl carrier protein (ACP) o Malonyl residue donated CO 2 leaving group o 2 NADPH required for each 2 carbon building block; donates electrons to reduce carbonyl group w/water as leaving group o Esterification of fatty acids to glycerol to produce di- and tri-glycerides Metabolic Regulation Cells contain complex interdependent catabolic and anabolic pathways that mediate their survival and replication. o
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Lecture 2.8 Notes - Biol 401 Biosynthesis anabolism Energy...

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