Homework Set 1 Solutions - Homework 1 Solutions Due:...

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Homework 1 Solutions Due: Wednesday 1/27 1. Read the article: Isaac Asimov, “The Future of Energy, Climate, Education and Humanity,” in the course’s portal. In no more than one page, answer the following: a. What predictions by Asimov were realized? (2) b. What predictions by Asimov have not been realized? (2) c. Discuss what you agree with, and disagree with Asimov about the future of humanity. (3) Realized predictions: i. Moon landings and resistance to space travel ii. Energy prices will continue to increase iii. Lower birth rates iv. Women’s lib – end of sexism (getting there) v. Continuing education Unrealized predictions: i. We will run out of fossil fuels ii. Climate will continue to get colder iii. Seven billion people by 2000 with stagnant food supplies leading to global famines iv. Multiple mothers rare v. End of ageism, racism, war vi. Education for all vii. Manned based on the Moon 2. Calculate the speed in meters per second of neutrons possessing the following energies: a. Fast neutron from fission at 2 MeV, (1) b. Intermediate energy neutron at 10 keV, (1) c. Thermal energy neutrons at 0.025 eV. (1) Fast neutron energies E = 1 2 mv 2 v = 2 E m = 2 2 × 10 6 eV ( ) 1.61 × 10 12 erg eV ( ) 1.675 × 10 24 g = 1.96 × 10 7 m Intermediate neutron energies v = 2 E m = 2 10 × 10 3 eV ( ) 1.61 × 10 12 erg eV ( ) 1.675 × 10 24 g = 1.39 × 10 6 m Thermal neutron energies v = 2 E m = 2 0.025 eV ( ) 1.61 × 10 12 erg eV ( ) 1.675 × 10 24 g = 2.192 × 10 3 m 2200 m
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Homework 2 Solutions Due: Friday 1/29 Access the Table of the Nuclides and data mine for the following information about the naturally occurring isotopes of the given elements of interest in nuclear power generation: a) Natural abundances in atomic percent (a/o), b) Atomic mass in atomic mass units (amu). Uranium, Thorium, Lithium, Carbon, Hydrogen, Lead, Beryllium, Boron, Cadmium, Sodium. Isotope Natural abundance (a/o) Atomic mass (amu) U-234 0.0055 % 234.0409456 ± 0.0000021 U-235 0.72 % 235.0439231 ± 0.0000021 U-238 99.2745 % 238.0507826 ± 0.0000021 Th-232 100 % 232.0380504 ± 0.0000022 Li-6 7.5 % 6.0151223 ± 0.0000005 Li-7 92.5 % 7.0160040 ± 0.0000005 C-12 98.89 % 12.000000 ± 0.0000000 C-13 1.11 % 12.0033548 ± 0.0000000 H-1 99.985 % 1.0078750 ± 0.0000000 H-2 0.015 % 2.0141018 ± 0.0000000 Pb-204 1.4 % 203.9730288 ± 0.0000031 Pb-206 24.1 % 205.9744490 ± 0.0000031 Pb-207 22.1 % 206.9758806 ± 0.0000031 Pb-208 52.4 % 207.9766359 ± 0.0000031 Be-9 100 % 9.0121821 ± 0.0000004 B-10 19.9 % 10.0129370 ± 0.0000004 B-11 80.1 % 11.0093055 ± 0.0000005 Cd-106 1.25 % 105.9064580 ± 0.0000065 Cd-108 0.89 % 107.9041834 ± 0.0000061 Cd-110 12.49 % 109.9030056 ± 0.0000032 Cd-111 12.80 % 110.9041816 ± 0.0000032 Cd-112 24.13 % 111.9027572 ± 0.0000030 Cd-113 12.22 % 112.9044009 ± 0.0000030 Cd-114 28.73 % 113.9033581 ± 0.0000030 Cd-116 7.49 % 115.9047554 ± 0.0000035 Na-23 100 % 22.9897697 ± 0.0000002
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Homework 3 Solutions Due: Monday 2/1 If a single fission reaction produces about 180 MeV of energy, excluding the unrecoverable energy of antineutrinos, use Avogadro’s law to calculate the number of grams of the fissile elements that would release 1 kT of TNT equivalent energy that is equal to 10 12 calories. 1. U 235 2. Pu 239 3. U 233 4. Np 237 From Avogadro’s law: N = m M A v and so m = NM A v . We know that the energy release needed is 1kT of TNT, so the equivalent number of nuclei required can be calculated using a simple unit conversion. N = 1 kT × 10 12 cal 1 kT × 2.6 × 10 25 MeV 10 12 cal × 1 fission 180 MeV = 1.44 × 10 23 nuclei Now we just need to calculate the mass in grams of the following fuels for a given value of N: 1. U235 m = 1.44 × 10 23 nuc ( ) 235 g mol ( ) 6.02 × 10 23 nuc mol = 56.21 g 2. Pu239 m = 1.44 × 10 23 nuc ( ) 239 g mol ( ) 6.02 × 10 23 nuc mol = 57.17 g 3. U233 m = 1.44 × 10 23 nuc ( ) 233 g mol ( ) 6.02 × 10 23 nuc
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Homework Set 1 Solutions - Homework 1 Solutions Due:...

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