Amy Zegart on Intelligence organizations

Amy Zegart on Intelligence organizations - September 11 and...

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1 September 11 and the Adaptation Failure of U.S. Intelligence Agencies (Part 2) Amy Zegart This article covers deficiencies in intelligence organizations in the United States, with respect to structure and culture that have led to security deficiencies. Introduction/Overview Three problems have led to failure to US intelligence agencies Nature of bureaucratic organizations b makes internal reform hard Self-interest of presidents, legislators, and government bureaucrats b works against executive branch reform fragmented structure of the federal government b barriers to legislative reform. Note: Change is not the same as adaptation. Four major problems have been recognized in papers the authors reviewed, with respect to the Central Intelligence Agency 1) The intelligence community’s lack of coherence 2) Insufficient human intelligence personnel systems that failed to align intelligence needs 3) Personnel skills and lack of information sharing 4) Weaknesses in setting intelligence priorities (by executive branch) Impediments to reform may emerge from both inside and outside the agency. Reforms fail because” Challenge deeply held organizational values and threaten to alter established routines. Trigger opposition from competing government agencies that stand to gain or lose depending on the outcome 1. The nature of organizations (pg. 94) Must adopt of internal changes, but organizations do not change easily I) Government agencies have more constraints, face b conflicting missions with less managerial discretion and few resources “Caught between Democrats and Republicans, military hawks and civil libertarians, interventionists and isolationists, policy advocates and opponents.” II) Government agencies were not built to be adaptable. Not designed to be innovative, but reliable and fair. Reduces probability of change
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Amy Zegart on Intelligence organizations - September 11 and...

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