Chapter9_CCL - Understanding Development ction and becomes...

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uction and becomes more efficient, it then crosses a threshold into leaner production after which its pollution output comes down. a ter rate of output. Understanding Development Chapter9- Conclusion How was 20 th Century? European control of the world Big world: o Only privileged could travel around the world o Communication technology was still not developed enough to make up the long distances of the world. Self-sufficient economies Human faith in progress was still unlimited o Had no idea that the planet’s resources or carrying capacity might be limited because those limits were not evident. o Little worry about population explosion, because there was plenty of unoccupied land on the planet. What happened/ will happen in the 21 st Century? Colonialism is a thing of the past The Western Age has entered its final act. -> Soon there will be the Pacific Age. China will take back the place as the world’s largest economy, joined by several economies in East and Southeast Asia The West will still be leading technologically and militarily. More than one pole in the world economy. Some third-world countries enter middle-income and developed nations while many countries especially in Sub-Saharan Africa will become ever more rooted in the third world. The world is a much smaller place. o There remain no undiscovered or isolated corners of the earth. Faith in progress has come into question because of environmental consciousness and fear of a population time bomb. Modernism has ceded to postmodernism. Information tends to flow in one direction. i.e. West -> Non-West Using the new information technologies, third-world activists are beginning to raise the consciousness of first-world populations. Most of African countries remain underdeveloped, but the consciousness of the need for third-world development has risen in the rich countries in recent years. The possibility of development in the 21 st Century Tools used in the past may no longer do the job. The extent of global interconnectedness (goods, information and capital flows freely around the world and integrate most of world’s countries) has made autarky a thing of the past.
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Human capital is mobile today. o Third-world middle classes whose intellectual and managerial contribution to development is essential have developed first-world tastes and attitudes. Costs of cutting trade are onerous; trying to protect one’s producers will almost certainly entail losses of access to foreign markets. Alternative to policies of increased national self-sufficiency has been discredited by practice(chapter5) Possibility of a different way to develop an economy (like socialist experiment) did not work either.
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This note was uploaded on 08/26/2010 for the course IDS 200 taught by Professor Pushkar during the Fall '10 term at McGill.

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Chapter9_CCL - Understanding Development ction and becomes...

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