Study Guide exam 1 2008

Study Guide exam 1 2008 - Study Guide: CDE 430 Spring,...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Study Guide: CDE 430 Spring, 2008: Exam 1 Themes in Infant Development Assumption about human nature (know Blake, Rousseau, Locke) ** -Blake – said children are inherently bad -Rousseau – said children are inherently good - romanticism -Locke – children have a blank slate (tabula rasa) Nature vs. Nurture -biological vs. environmental Continuity vs. Discontinuity ** -Continuity - change occurs over time (tree) -Discontinuity – stages (butterfly) Active vs. Passive -Active – infants play role in own development -Passive – infants shaped by external forces Theories of Development Psychodynamic Theories ** Sigmund Freud o Behavior is motivated by inner forces, memories, and inner conflicts o Psychosexual developmental stages (gratification is obtained through particular biological functions and body parts) o Early experiences carry over into adulthood Developmental Stages ==> Oral- Mouth (gratification, development- security) ==> Anal- toilet training (deals with autonomy and independence) ==> Phallic stage- The child develops a strong desire for parent of opposite sex. (Oedipal and Electra Complex) ==> Latency Period ==> Genital Stage Psychodynamic Theories 1. Good, Bad, or Neither? Selfish, Sexual (bad) 2. Nature vs. Nurture? Both, Nature because everyone goes through stages but Nurture because experiences have long term effects 3. Continuous vs. discontinuous? Discontinuous because of the stages. 4. Passive or active? Passive Ethological/Evolutionary Theories ** - Ethological or evolutionary Theory (Darwin) • Behavior is innate and doesn’t need to be learned. • Evolutionary adapt (survival of the species) • May be critical and sensitive period (a special time when experiences make a difference for development). For example, the baby ried to be near her mom. 1. Good, bad, or neither? Innate needs for survival (neither) 2. Nature vs. Nurture? Nature mostly. 3. Continuous or Discontinuous? Discontinuous (critical Periods) 4. Passive vs. Active? Passive (infant takes no role) Learning Approaches (Classical Conditioning, Operant Learning- know rewards/punishments, Social Learning) ** Learning theories (John Watson- Classical Conditioning) 1. Classical conditioning- associative/respondent learning. You take an unlearned stimulus/response and pair it with something neutral that will get associated with the unlearned stimulus. You need to create new associations between bedtime and comfort (Baby Albert Experiment). 2. Operant Learning- (BF Skinner Behaviorism). Rewards and Punishments. Use both positive and negative reinforcement. 3. Social Learning- (Albert Bandura)- Social learning theory- we learn from modeling others’ behavior. This learning is especially effective if we observe a behavior and its consequences
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Punishment Positive Punishment- giving something aversive (scolding or spanking) Negative Punishment- Taking away something good (play time) From Social Learning What are the positions for the main issues in infancy for Learning Theories? 1. Good, bad, or neither? Neither, blankslate.
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 04/03/2008 for the course CDE 430 taught by Professor Alysonshapiro during the Spring '08 term at ASU.

Page1 / 5

Study Guide exam 1 2008 - Study Guide: CDE 430 Spring,...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online