ch369_ch 12-oxidative phospo

ch369_ch 12-oxidative phospo - Glycolysis : Glucose was...

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Unformatted text preview: Glycolysis : Glucose was oxidized to 2 pyruvates. NAD + reduced to NADH. 2 ATPs were made. Citric acid cycle: Pyruvate oxidized to CO 2 . NAD + and Q were reduced. GTP was made. PDC TCA cycle Things to know about TCA cycle: Names & # of Cs of 8 intermediates. Which steps generate CO 2 . What gets produced (CO 2 , NADH, QH 2 , GTP). What gets consumed (acetate units, from pyruvate, are oxidized to CO 2 ) NADH NADH NADH QH 2 Q GTP GDP NAD + NAD + NAD + 3C s 2Cs 4Cs 6Cs 6Cs 5Cs 4Cs 4Cs 4Cs 4Cs In fully oxidizing glucose to CO 2 , 2 ATPs and 2 GTPs were made for each glucose that we started with. This is pathetic! Burning glucose in O 2 gives enough energy for 80 ATP! Where did the rest of the energy go? It was mostly used to reduce the NAD + to NADH, and also some went to reducing the cofactor Q to QH 2 . How much free energy could be released oxidizing NADH with O 2 ?-219 KJ/mo l How much energy is needed to make ATP ? Thats a lot of free energy released by oxidizing NADH ! Its enough to make almost 7 ATP from each NADH ! Now, we just need some way to oxidize NADH and QH 2 with O 2 , and use the energy released to make ATP. This is Oxidative phosphorylation . Oxidative Phosphorylation - Chapter 12 Using the energy contained within reduced cofactors (NADH & QH 2 ) to make ATP. Oxidative phosphorylation (OP) occurs in the mitochondria (in eukaryotes). Mitochondrial outer membrane is very permeable. Mitochondria are very fussy about what they let pass across their inner membrane . First need to get ADP and phosphate into the mitochondrial matrix. In inner mitochondrial inner membranre, there are transporter proteins for ADP and phosphate, also for getting ATP out again after it is produced. Adenine nucleotide translocase The overall reaction for oxidative is: This reaction is actually done in a series of several small steps. A very clever way has evolved for capturing the energy released from oxidizing NADH and QH 2 , and using this energy to make ATP. A series of electron carriers move electrons from NADH & QH 2 through a series of spontaneous electron transfer (ET) reactions that release energy. The 4 major enzyme complexes that harvest the energy of NADH and QH 2 are located on the mitochondrial inner membrane. Complex I- NADH dehydrogenase complex, or NADH-CoQ reductase....
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ch369_ch 12-oxidative phospo - Glycolysis : Glucose was...

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