ch369_sum10_glycol_2_notes

ch369_sum10_glycol_2_notes - Ofce hours this week, before...

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Office hours this week, before Wednesday exam.
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Summary up to now. 10 steps in glycolysis. Each step is catalyzed by its own enzyme. Glycolysis is regulated at the irreversible steps. Generate 2 ATPs. “energy investment phase” where ATP is consumed, “payoff phase” where ATP is generated. Chapter 10.
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Can glycolysis run the other way, to make glucose from pyruvate? Yes ! (but with some modifications).
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Can glycolysis run the other way, to make glucose from pyruvate? Yes ! (but with some modifications). The reverse of glycolysis is called “ gluconeogenesis ”.
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glycolysis gluconeogenesis
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In gluconeogenesis, 7 of the enzymes are the same as used in glycolysis. Which ones are used in both processes? Those that catalyze the reversible steps. But gluconeogenesis needs to have “work arounds” for the 3 irreversible steps (these are steps 10, 3, 1).
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glycolysis gluconeogenesis Step 10 Step 3 Step 1
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Reversing step 10 of glycolysis requires 2 enzymes for a 2-step reaction, consuming ATP and GTP: Pyruvate carboxylase requires a biotin prosthetic group, attached to a lysine on the enzyme.
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Biotin is a prosthetic group for pyruvate carboxylase, an enzyme in gluconeogenesis. Biotin = vitamin B7
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Gluconeogenesis is energetically expensive. It is regulated, so only used when needed. Regulatory points are the same as glycolysis (reverse of steps 10, 3, 1).
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fructose bisphosphatase regulated regulated regulated
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Getting rid of lactate from muscles: The “Cori cycle”.
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ch369_sum10_glycol_2_notes - Ofce hours this week, before...

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