ch369_sum10_last_notes

ch369_sum10_last_notes - Environmental genomics reveals a...

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Environmental genomics reveals a single-species ecosystem deep within earth. Science, 322, 275-278 (Oct. 10, 2008).
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What is environmental genomics? Take an environmental sample, extract DNA and sequence. DNA sequences (such as those encoding ribosomal RNA genes) allow species to be classified among their closest relatives.
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Mponeng gold mine, South Africa.
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Environmental genomics in gold mine. In this case, the environmental sample was 5600 liters of water from fractures in rock, at a depth of 2.8 km. Sequencing of environmental DNA showed that only a single species occupied this habitat. A single-species habitat had never been observed before.
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Candidatus Desulforudis audaxviator (Bold traveler). In Jules Verne’s “Journey to the Center of the Earth”, the explorers find an inscription “Descende, audax viator, et terrestre centrum attinges”, which means “Descend, bold traveler, and you will attain the center of the earth”.
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Full genome of Bold Traveler was sequenced. Bold Traveler is a bacterium with 2157 genes (enough genes to live independently).
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Classification of audaxviator, based on DNA sequencing: Bacterium, similar to other sulfate reducing bacteria. Although a bacterium, there are a few archaeal genes (by horizontal gene transfer).
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Bold Traveler is an endolith ; lives in water trapped in rock pores. I found an image of endoliths in Wikipedia (this is not Bold Traveler).
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60 degrees C, no O 2 , no light, no carbon from biological sources, no organic carbon coming in from the outside world. There is water, non-biogenic CO 2 and CO, some inorganic CaCO 3 , and some N 2 gas. The water has been isolated from surface water for about 20 million
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ch369_sum10_last_notes - Environmental genomics reveals a...

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