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Chapter 2 SG - Chapter 2 Matter what organisms are composed...

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Chapter 2 Matter- what organisms are composed of; anything that takes up space Element- a substance that cannot be broken down by chemical reactions; composes matter a. 92 elements naturally occur in nature Compound- a substance of 2+ elements combined in a fixed ratio Essential elements- 25 of 92 elements are needed for life a. Of these 25, 4 make up the 96% of living matter b. These include C, H, O, N Trace elements- required elements in smaller quantities a. Some include P, S, Ca, K Atom- smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element Neutrons, Electrons & Protons- =, -, + respectively a. Nucleus= N + P; electrons scatter around nucleus like cloud b. N & P similar in size (1.7*10^-24 grams) Daltons- unit of measurement for subatomic particles; interchangeable with “ amu Atomic number- tells # of protons Mass number- tells sum of protons and neutrons Atomic mass- the average weight of an element’s isotope occurring in nature Isotopes- elements with different number of neutrons Radioactive Isotope- unstable isotope with a nucleus that decays, losing a proton= change in element a.
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