Chapter 6 SG - Chapter 6 Light Microscope- visible light...

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Chapter 6 Light Microscope- visible light passed through specimen through glass lenses; sees most cells, nucleus, bacteria (LM: 1 mm-10 U l) Organelles- subcellular structures too small for LM’s; EM’s resolve this problem (in using EM’s = AKA cell ultrastructure ) Electron Microscope- beam of electrons through specimen or its surface; sees most subcellular/atomic structures (EM: .1nm-100 U l) a. Scanning E. Microscope- for detailed study of specimen surface; broader visual of surface (SEM) b. Transmission E. Microscope- for internal ultrastructure of cells; specifically beams inside (TEM) Cell Fractionation- taking cells apart and separating major organelles Ultracentrifuges- 130000rpm; separates cell parts by size and density Organelle Prokaryote Eukaryote Cytosol-semifluid in membrane Yes Yes Chromosomes- genes carrying DNA Yes Yes Ribosomes- protein maker from genetic material Yes Yes Nucleoid- region of concentrated DNA Yes No Nucleus- has genes (DNA), nucleolus covered by nuclear lamina No Yes Cytoplasm- region inside plasma membrane Yes Yes Cell Wall- maintains shape and protects cell Yes (Peptidoglycan) Yes (Only Plants- cellulose) Flagella- locomotion of organelles Yes (Some) Yes (Some) Plasma Membrane- selective barrier that allows O 2 ; higher Surface Area:Volume ratio better accommodates cell Nucleus- contains most genes of cell (some in mitochondria/chloroplast) and nucleolus; enveloped by nuclear lamina a. Directs protein synthesis by sending mRNA to cytoplasm through nuclear pores Chromosomes- organization of DNA into tightly coiled libraries untranscribable until uncoiled Chromatin- complex of proteins and DNA that makes up chromosomes Nucleolus- has rRNA (ribosomal RNA) that makes ribosome subunits that exit through pores into cytoplasm Ribosome- factory translating mRNA protein; goes with nucleolus; free ribosome- loose in cytosol; bound ribosome- stuck at ER Endomembrane System- does protein synthesis, transports protein in/out, metabolizes lipids and detoxifies toxins
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Chapter 6 SG - Chapter 6 Light Microscope- visible light...

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