Chapter 12 SG - hase, the last 2 fall under the mitotic M...

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phase, the last 2 fall under the mitotic “M” phase Chapter 12 Key Roles of Cell Division- reproduction, growth and development, and tissue renewal Genome- cell’s own DNA, genetic information Chromosomes- Packaging of DNA that makes replication and distribution manageable; has one long, linear DNA molecule Somatic Cells- body cells except reproductive, germ cells (46, complete set in humans) Gametes- reproductive, germ cells that have half as many chromosomes as somatic cells (23 in humans) Chromatin- chromosome composition that has DNA complex with protein molecules (histones) Sister Chromatids- duplicates of the same chromosome; two sis-chromatids make one chromosome Centromere- narrow “waist” that attaches two sister chromatids Mitosis- division of the nucleus, creating identical DNA copies of the same cell (somatic cells) Cytokinesis- division of the cytoplasm that follows mitosis; results in two daughter cells of equivalent genetics to parent cell Zygote- the fertilized egg when father’s sperm meets mother’s egg (male gamete meets female gamete zygote) Meiosis- cell division that yields non-identical daughter cells that have 1 set of chromosomes, or half the parent’s number (23) Centrosomes- microtubule-organizing factory that starts spindle formation after duplicating itself Centrioles- located at center of centrosomes, present in animals, not plants; not necessary for cell division Aster- short microtubules that extend from centrosome; the “star” Kinetochore- two are located facing opposite directions at centromere of chromosome; site where microtubule of spindle connects
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Chapter 12 SG - hase, the last 2 fall under the mitotic M...

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