Chapter 13 Heredity- transmission of traits from one generation to the next Variation- differences of appearance between parental and offspring phenotype Genes- hereditary units of coded information from paternal and maternal genome Gametes- reproductive cells, either sperm or egg, that unite to form zygote, or offspring Locus- gene’s specific location along a chromosome Asexual Reproduction- reproduction that results in a clone , or copy of parent (not plural); budding genetically identical clone Sexual Reproduction- two parents give rise to offspring with unique genes inherited from the 2 parents Somatic Cells (human)- body cells that contain 46 chromosomes Karyotype- arrangement of chromosome pairs (with same length, stain pattern, and centromere location) based on length Homologous Chromosomes- chromosomes of the same length and pattern carrying genes controlling same inherited characters X & Y- exception to the homologue arrangement that distinguishes gender (XX-female, XY-male); are the sex chromosomes Diploid Cell- has a diploid number 2n (i.e. humans: 2n=46; therefore 23 make up x/y); somatic cells are diploid cells
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