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Chapter 15 SG - Chapter 15 Chromosome Theory of Inheritance...

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Chapter 15 Chromosome Theory of Inheritance- genes have specific loci on chromosomes which undergo segregation and indep. assort. Thomas Morgan- embryologist that proved mendelian heritable factors Experimental Organism- used fruit flies, Drosophila , due to easy breeding, small chromosome numbers (4), and notable phenotype Wild-Type- normal, common phenotype in natural populations (i.e. Red-eyed Drosophila ) symbol= [w + ] Mutant Phenotypes- alleles assumed to have originated from mutations or changes to wild type allele (i.e. White-eyed flies) [w] Experimental White Fly Breeding- started different modes of inheritance (sex-linked, autosomal, linked, etc.) a. white eyes=sex-linked recessive, females didn’t express this because mother would always give white X w to son while father would give Y to son; son would have to breed with wild-type female ( X w+ X w+ ) always yielding red-eyed females Linked Genes- genes located at the same chromosome, which tend to be inherited together (esp. in closer map units;less crossover %) a. despite being physically linked genes on same chromosome are genetically unlinked , or can cross over the farther apart Genetic Recombination- yields non-parental phenotypes due to crossing over, or different gene combinations in a chromosome Parental Types- offspring that express parental phenotype (either/or, not both) Recombinant Types- offspring of new combination in genes that express non-parental phenotypes (AKA recombinants) Morgan’s Experimental Numbers- parental types in higher quantities than recombinants crossing over
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