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Chapter 35 SG - Chapter 35 Plasticity organisms ability to...

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Chapter 35 Plasticity- organism’s ability to alter/mold itself in response to local/environmental conditions (i.e. fanwort big leaves on surface; small under) Morphology- natural selection accumulating characteristics of external form (i.e. cacti have tiny leaves spikes that stem is photosynthetic) Tissue- a group of cells with common function, structure or both Organ- consists of several types of tissues that together carry out particular functions; plants have 3 basics (roots, stems and leaves) Root & Shoot System- interdependent parts of plant that allow absorption from above and below surface (root-water; leaves-sugar) Roots- organ that anchors vascular plants (in soil) absorbing minerals and water and often stores organic nutrients Taproot System- in most eudicots (Ch30) and gymnosperm, consists of one main vertical root; developed from embryonic root Lateral Roots- aka branch roots; these grow from taproots Fibrous Root System- in most monocots and bryophytes, is when embryonic root dies (no main root); but just mats of thin roots spread out Adventitious- roots arising from stem; extraneous if and because it grows in unusual spot Root Hair- extension of root epidermal cell for SA increase (not multicellular like lateral roots) Modified Roots- prop (aerial/support) storage (food/water store) strangling (aerial/dependent) buttress (support) pneumatophores (O 2 finders) Stem- organ that has alternating system of nodes (points at which leaves attach) and internodes (stem segment between nodes) Axillary Bud- angular structure that has potential to form lateral shoot (branch); most are dormant (not growing); grows when apex eaten, etc. Terminal Bud- elongating young shoot concentrated near shoot apex (tip); cutting apex usually makes plant short and bushier due to alteration Apical Dominance- inhibiting growth of axillary buds is evolutionary by concentrating resources for elongation, which increases light exposure Modified Stems- stolons (enable asexual rep) bulbs (onion;vertical shoot) tubers (potato=storage rhizomes) rhizomes (edible base) Leaves- main photosynthetic organ for most plants; stems are photosynthetic too Blade- flattened part of leaf Petiole- stalk which joins leaf to node of stem Veins- vascular tissue of leaves (in monocots,parallel; while in eudicots, branched) Leaf Morphology- structure, shape and pattern a. Simple leaf- single, undivided blade (i.e. oak); axillary bud at end b. Compound leaf- blade consists of multiple leaflets without axillary buds at base c. Doubly Compound leaf- each leaflet is divided into smaller leaflets Modified Leaves- tendrils (wirysupport) spines (spiky thorn cacti) storage (succulents at ice/desert) bracts (poinsettia) reproductive (succulents) Tissue System- one or more tissues organized into functional unit connecting organs of plant Dermal Tissue System- outer protection; a.
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