Ch40WordLectureOutline

Ch40WordLectureOutline - CHAPTER 40 AN INTRODUCTION TO...

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CHAPTER 40 AN INTRODUCTION TO ANIMAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Introduction The study of animal form and function is integrated by the common set of problems that all animals must solve. These include how to extract oxygen from the environment, how to nourish themselves, how to excrete waste products, and how to move. Animals of diverse evolutionary histories and varying complexities must solve these general challenges of life. A. Functional Anatomy: An Overview 1. Animal form and function reflects biology’s major themes Animals provide vivid examples of biology’s overarching theme of evolution. The adaptations observed in a comparative study of animals evolved by natural selection. For example, the long, tonguelike proboscis of a hawkmoth is a structural adaptation for feeding. Recoiled when not in use, the proboscis extends as a straw through which the moth can suck nectar from deep within tube-shaped flowers. While natural selection provides a mechanism for long-term adaptation, organisms also have the capacity to adjust to environmental change over the short term by physiological responses.
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For example, while most insects are inactive when cold, the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, can forage for nectar when air temperatures are as low as 5 o C. The moth uses a shivering-like mechanism for preflight warm up of its flight muscles. Once in flight, the waste heat of metabolic activity in the flight muscles and other adaptations maintain a muscle temperature of 30 o C, even when the external environment is close to freezing. Searching for food, generating body heat and regulating internal temperature, sensing and responding to environmental stimuli, and all other animal activities require fuel in the form of chemical energy. The concept of bioenergetics—how organisms obtain, process, and use their energy resources—is another connecting theme in the comparative study of animals. Animals also show a correlation between structure and function. Form fits function at all levels of life, from molecules to organisms. Knowledge of a structure provides insight into what it does and how its works. Conversely, knowing the function of a structure provides insight about its construction. Anatomy is the study of the structure of an organism. Physiology is the study of the functions an organism performs. The distinction blurs when we apply the structure-function theme, and “anatomy-and-physiology” rolls off the tongue as though it were one big compound noun. The form-function principle is just another extension of biology’s central theme of evolution. 2. Function correlates with structure in the tissues of animals Life is characterized by hierarchical levels of organization, each with emergent properties.
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Animals are multicellular organisms with their specialized cells grouped into tissues. In most animals, combinations of various tissues make up functional
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This note was uploaded on 08/28/2010 for the course SCIENCE 101 taught by Professor Wong during the Spring '10 term at Rutgers.

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Ch40WordLectureOutline - CHAPTER 40 AN INTRODUCTION TO...

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