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Unformatted text preview: Judaism Judaism No single founder and no designated head of the tradition Ethnic group or religious group ‘Israel’ in religious sense = those who answer the call of God and strive to live out the Torah (Pentateuch—or whole body of Jewish teaching and law) Pentateuch—first five books of the Jewish Scriptures History History Traditionalists take the Pentateuch to be God’s word revealed to Moses. Themes: Exile and Covenant Covenant—contract between God and the people, illustrated in stories of Noah and Abraham especially. Israelites rejected the traditions of the peoples around them, believing they had been chosen by a single divinity. History History Israelites—Likely of mixed ethnic stock Jacob: Wives and maidservants had one daughter and twelve sons The sons became the heads of the twelve tribes of Israel All left for Egypt in a time of famine Exodus opens four centuries later with the Pharaoh persecuting the Israelites. Moses Moses Moses escaped the command that all male boys born to Israeli women were to be killed Moses was chosen by God to lead the Israelites out of Egypt, to Mt. Sinai to reestablish the covenant with God, then on to return to Israel. At Mt. Sinai Moses received the Ten Commandments, and a set of rules, including instructions for the Ark of the Covenant. 13th11th centuries BCE entered Canaan. First Temple First Temple Solomon (son of King David) built a temple in Jerusalem to house the Ark of the Covenant Temple: a place to make burned offerings of animals, grains, and oil to God So, after a long period of wandering in the desert, the Israelites finally had a central location to worship their God Decline Decline Solomon became very wealthy, and began building alters to the gods of his wives There followed a general decline in Israel, and after Solomon’s death the kingdom was divided in two—Israel and Judah Prophets began their warnings of an end to the Jewish state as a result of idolatry and social injustice and moral corruption Fall of Kingdom Fall of Kingdom 8th century BCE: Assyria conquers Israel and the Israelites are taken into exile among the Gentiles (nonJewish people) This led to most Israelites losing their distinct identity This group became known as the “Ten Lost Tribes of Israel” Fall of Kingdom Fall of Kingdom In 586 BCE the Babylonians conquered Jerusalem They also destroyed the Temple built by Solomon Many Jews taken into exile in Babylonia They were called Jews because they came from Judah Second Temple Second Temple Persian King Cyrus authorized the rebuilding of the Temple in Jerusalem, which was finished in 515BCE In the meantime, most Jews remained in the diaspora—maintaining their faith in God while living outside their homeland Temple priests focused on solidifying temple rituals and began a redaction of the stories of the Jewish people. The Torah then became the spiritual and secular foundation for the dispersed Jewish people Israel Israel Israel was established as an independent Jewish nation in the second century BCE after the Maccabean rebellion against Hellenistic rule by Syria. Three sects formed in Israel: Sadducees (priests and wealthy) Pharises (sought to apply Torah to everyday life) Essenes (saw the priesthood as corrupt, left for Qumran and established a library now known as the Dead Sea Scrolls) Roman Rule Roman Rule Romans took over Israel in 63BCE The Jews began to express belief in a messianic age in which Jews would be able to return to their homeland This belief was bolstered by some earlier prophets—even claiming a Messiah would come to bring evil to an end and establish peace In 66CE the Jews rebelled against Rome, but in 70CE Roman legions destroyed the Temple in Jerusalem—only the crumbled remains known as the “Western Wall” can still be found there. Dispersed Dispersed Under Roman persecution many Jews scattered throughout the Mediterranean and Western Asia. Inheritors of the Pharisee tradition (rabbis) established new Jewish traditions—prayer and ethical behavior substituted for temple rituals People met in synagogues to worship and read the Torah Now interpretation of the Torah gave unity to the Jewish people Through such interpretation new concepts like the soul and God’s presence in the world were introduced Middle Ages Middle Ages Although faring quite well in Islamic countries, the Jews were heavily persecuted throughout many Christian European countries. Poland became a significant haven for those expelled from western Europe. During these centuries of persecution the belief in a messiah persisted—despite the apearance of several ‘pseudomessiahs’ Holocaust and after Holocaust and after Murder of nearly six million Jews—half the Jewish population of Europe (and a third of the world’s Jewish population) 1947 United Nations partitioned Palestine into two areas, one governed by Jews, the other by Arabs, with Jerusalem an international zone Israel declared itself an independent state in 1948, and soon came under attack. Conflict with its neighboring countries has continued since Concepts and Practice Concepts and Practice Torah Narrow: Five books of Moses Wide: Entire Hebrew Bible and teachings Highest: God’s will and wisdom Concepts Concepts One God—monotheism Love of God—humans must love God, a commandment emphasized in prayers and religious services Sacredness of human life—Humans are created in God’s image (though this is typically not interpreted anthropomorphically). People are potentially equal and perfectible. Life is sacred and sexuality is holy within marriage Concepts Concepts Law: Acting in accord with the Torah is the means to upholding humans’ part of the covenant with God Rabbinic literature teaches that the Torah contains 613 commandments—ranging from ethical guidelines to civil matters such as inheritance and family law Concepts Concepts Suffering and faith: If God is allpowerful, and rewards the righteous, then why is it that good, innocent people sometimes suffer? The parable of Job suggests that God’s wisdom is beyond human understanding Sacred Practices Sacred Practices Daily scriptural study is a major practice for males. Circumcision—traditionally on the eighth day of life Maintaining pure lines of descent is important Marital sexuality is sacred, but adultery is strictly prohibited Practice Practice Torah defined ritually acceptable foods(Kosher) Traditional Jews start the day with a prayer Males pray with a prayer cloth (talit) and phylacteries on the forehead and upper arm Traditional prayer schedule for males Females are excused from this schedule due to their household responsibilities Sabbath Sabbath The Sabbath is observed from sunset Friday to sunset on Saturday night. Traditionally no work is done on the Sabbath Families may attend Sabbath services and begin Sabbath with a special Friday night dinner. Bar Mitzvah Bar Mitzvah Jewish boys celebrate their coming of age at thirteen with a ritual called Bar Mitzvah (son of the commandment). In nonOrthodox congregations, girls may now celebrate a similar ritual called the Bat Mitzvah ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/29/2010 for the course ENGINEERIN 305 taught by Professor Martincandell during the Spring '10 term at Rio Hondo College.
- Spring '10