1. The left: socialism and communism
a. Key thinkers: Marx (b. 1818)/Lenin/ Bernstein
b. Ideas: equality, state intervention to correct market inequality, democracy?
collective ownership of the means of production, planning, class conflict
c. Socialism and communism split (Bolshevik Rev., 1917), democratic road to
power vs revolution, dictatorship of the proletariat, state socialism
d. Socialism is the natural ideology of the working class in an industrial society; a
19th c. ideology
e. After the demise of SU, is Socialism dead?
Prototypical Communist Party: PCF (France)
Prototypical Socialist Party: SAP (Sweden)
2. Liberalism and center parties
a. Key thinkers, Locke, Adam Smith
b. Liberalism in Europe vs America
c. Ideas: indiv freedom, equal opportunity, free markets, limited states, equality of
rights not outcomes.
d. The natural ideology of the emerging middle class under capitalism, a 18th
e. Squeezed by socialism on left, conservatism on right
f. Center, moderate parties combine elements of capitalism/welfare state to chart
Prototypical Liberal Party: FDP (Germany)
Prototypical center party: Moderates (Sweden)
3. Parties of the right: conservatism, Christian Democracy, and the extreme right
a. Key thinker: Burke
b. Key ideas: order, hierarchy, a strong state, welfare but material equality not a