Mid-term collaboration - Terms: 1. Dynastic Cycle a. Stage...

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Terms: 1. Dynastic Cycle – a. Stage 1: land reclamation; light taxation; efficient government b. Stage 2: economic expansion; population growth; urbanization c. Stage 3: expanded government; land concentration; increased tax burden d. Stage 4: government corruption and inefficiency; dislocation of the landless; social instability; rebellion/foreign invasion; economy devastated; population wiped out 2. Each dynasty is initially established by force. Early emperors and their governments are effective, taxation is light, and society is stable. This is followed by economic expansion, population growth, and urbanization. By stage three, the government has expanded, land possession has been concentrated in the hands of a few warlords, and an increased tax has been levied on the peasants. Due to government corruption, inefficiency and the peasants’ inability to pay taxes, social discontent grows. This is eventually followed by rebellion, justified under the old Confucian tradition: "right to rebel." Failure of the dynasty is proof that it had lost the support of the gods, otherwise known as the "Mandate of Heaven"; thus it is correct to rebel. The newly established dynasty following this rebellion would be said to have received the Mandate of Heaven and the cycle would begin anew. 3. Sinocentrism Zhongguo, China center of the world a. Sinocentrism is the idea that China is the center of the world as well as the only civilized land. All other foreign countries were considered barbaric in comparison. Chinese felt their economy and culture were more advanced that those of other countries (e.g. silk production, farming systems). For thousands of years China maintained a tributary system with surrounding countries (Korea, Vietnam, Afghanistan, etc.), meaning other countries accepted China as their superior as well as protector. This allowed China to believe more strongly in the concept of Sinocentrism. Geographic location also played a role in this belief, as China was located in the center of its tributary lands, as well as isolated in the early days of the empire, during the period of nascent sinocentrism. 4. “Agricultural Involution” (Philip Huang)
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Workdays 150 200 250 300 350 Output per mu 500 550 580 600 610 Output per workday 3.33 2.75 2.32 2.00 1.74 Land productivity: increasing Labor productivity: decreasing Agricultural Revolution in early modern Europe: Workdays 100 90 80 70 60 Output per land unit 800 900 1000 1100 1200 Output per workday 8 9 12.50 15.71 20 Land productivity: increasing Labor productivity: increasing Population pressure on resources, particularly land; An oversupply of cheap labor, favoring labor-intensive innovations; Non-mechanized processes in agriculture and industry were so well developed and efficient that they out-competed early mechanized processes, thus making capital investment in mechanization unprofitable; China's massive size allowed its population to simply migrate to a new region instead of forcing them to develop more efficient mechanized
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Mid-term collaboration - Terms: 1. Dynastic Cycle a. Stage...

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