Early Medieval Art:200-1000 AD

Early Medieval Art:200-1000 AD - 1. Religious Art in the...

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1. Religious Art in the Ancient World a. Parthenon (450-420 b.c.)- temple of Athena, patron goddess of the city. Cult statue by Pheidias made of gold and ivory. Pediments depict birth of Athena and her struggle with Poseidon. Metopes with battle scenes. Frieze with procession to present the “peplos” to the goddess. (example of Sacred History, ritual imagery) Triumph of victory images show truly human conquering animal. b. Dura Synagogue (before 256 c.e.)- was a Roman fort. Sacked by Persians in 256 and abandoned. Many religions in the city (Temple of Palmyrene gods, Mithras popular among the military) Courtyard in front, assembly room. i. Torah shrine- Sacrifice of Abraham. Shows the relationship between God and the Jews. Temple was supposedly built on the spot of the sacrifice. ii. Tree of Life painting added later. iii. David anointed by Samuel. Purple color of royalty. Height shows relationship of power. 2. The Late Roman Crisis a. Forum of Trajan with Basilica Ulpia (120)- temple of Trajan at one end and 2 libraries. Allowed you to view most parts of the column. Largest forum ever. b. Column of Trajan- armored statue on top (now St. Peter). Ashes in the base unprecedented. Scenes of sacrifice, addressing the troops, battles against the Dacians. c. Column of Marcus Aurelius (190)- higher relief. Refers to the column of Trajan (referentiality). Legibility at the expense of naturalism. d. Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus (251)- e. New Concerns i. Supernatural- gods on their side. (Marcus Aurelius column storm god) Roman religion was becoming less popular, and this was a way to assert it. ii. Emotional intensity- e.g. Caracalla iii. Space and Formal arrangements- not illusionistic e.g. column of Antonius Pious iv. Formulae- patterns repeated v. Cult of the emperor. 3. Beginnings of Christian Art a. Tomb Slab of Domitilla (3 rd c.) - anchor symbolizes strength, protection. Was used by Romans to signify victory at sea. b.
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Early Medieval Art:200-1000 AD - 1. Religious Art in the...

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