Introduction to International Relations_Towns_Date__031010

Introduction to International Relations_Towns_Date__031010...

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INTERNATIONAL LAW AND LIBERALISM Realists advocate coercive diplomacy for the managing of international conflict o Coercive diplomacy: “a method of bargaining between states in which threats to use arms or the actual use of limited armed force are made to persuade an opponent to change its foreign policy and force it to make undesired concessions and compromises.” o Achieved by issuing of an ultimatum (a choice between punishment and compliance) Liberals argue that such behavior leads to crises Crisis: “A situation in which the threat of escalation to warfare is high and the time available for making decisions and reaching compromised solutions in negotiations is compressed.’ o Results in reduced ability to evade war Ex) Cuban Missile Crisis—military conflict results in real possibility of global annihilation Liberals advance negotiation as an alternative o Negotiation: “diplomatic dialogue and discussion between two or more parties with the goal of resolving through give-and-take bargaining perceived differences of interests and the conflicts they cause” Negotiations are in themselves hit-or-miss; due to a sense of tit-for-tat reciprocity, the tone of the exchange can either improve the situation or create more tension and raise the likelihood of armed conflict For this reason, repetitive concessions are often made in successful negotiations; furthermore, successful negotiators need to be very intelligent, flexible, resourceful and honest Mediation is a tried-and-true method of negotiation o Mediation: “a conflict-resolution procedure in which a third party proposes a nonbinding solution to the disputants” o Practiced in three forms: Manipulation: a third party uses leverage in a reward/punishment fashion to move the parties toward a particular conclusion Facilitation: a third party takes on the role of communicator Formulation: a third party makes substantive suggestions as to what solutions might be possible o Works best when the disputants are unequal in their capabilities and the mediator is an intergovernmental organization (IGO) as opposed to a lone state. o
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This note was uploaded on 08/30/2010 for the course POSC 240 taught by Professor Denemark during the Spring '08 term at University of Delaware.

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Introduction to International Relations_Towns_Date__031010...

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