Introduction to Sociological Research_Kupchik_Date__031010

Introduction to Sociological Research_Kupchik_Date__031010...

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Sampling, causation and study design Population and sample o Population – the entire set of elements (individuals or other entities) o Sample – a subset of elements form the population Sampling overview o Two general types of sampling Probability Non-probability o Goal is to generalize – two types of Generalizability Sample Generalizability – ability to generalize from a subset (sample) of a larger population to that population itself 1. Are Psych 101 students representative of all undergrads Cross-population Generalizability – ability to generalize from finding about one group, population, or setting to other groups, populations, or setting Basic sampling concepts o Target population: ENTIRE group you want to generalize your research to o Population: members of target population from which sample is actually selected o Sampling frame: list of members of study population from which sample is selected. List of sampling units o Sampling unit: any single unit sampled from the population Example: book chapter 4 o Target: all delinquents in Kindle County o Population: youths adjudicated delinquent in Kindle County o Sampling frame: records of probation office of youths adjudicate in Kindle county in 2002 o Unit: each individual in Kindle county in 2002 Probability sampling o Sampling methods that rely on random sampling o Allows researchers to select study subjects to be statistically representative of population they want to learn about (generalize to) Representative = sample characteristics are similar to population characteristics o Major types Simple random sampling Systematic random sampling Cluster sampling Stratified random sampling 1. Simple random sampling o Identifies cases strictly on the basis of chance o True random sample is obtained through the equal probability of selection method (EPSEM) All members of population have equal chance of being sampled

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Selecting a random sample o Coin flip o Random sampling ( a tool for ensuring Generalizability): individuals are
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