2000APTestMech - 2000 Advanced Placement Program®...

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Unformatted text preview: 2000 Advanced Placement Program® Free-Response Questions The materials included in these files are intended for use by AP® teachers for course and exam preparation in the classroom; permission for any other use must be sought from the Advanced Placement Program. Teachers may reproduce them, in whole or in part, in limited quantities, for face-to-face teaching purposes but may not mass distribute the materials, electronically or otherwise. These materials and any copies made of them may not be resold, and the copyright notices must be retained as they appear here. This permission does not apply to any third-party copyrights contained herein. These materials were produced by Educational Testing Service (ETS), which develops and administers the examinations of the Advanced Placement Program for the College Board. The College Board and Educational Testing Service (ETS) are dedicated to the principle of equal opportunity, and their programs, services, and employment policies are guided by that principle. The College Board is a national nonprofit membership association dedicated to preparing, inspiring, and connecting students to college and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 3,800 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves over three million students and their parents, 22,000 high schools, and 5,000 colleges, through major programs and services in college admission, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®), and Pacesetter®. The College Board is committed to the principles of equity and excellence, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. Copyright © 2000 by College Entrance Examination Board and Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board. -X- MMMMMMMMMMMMM - X- 2000 AP® PHYSICS C FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS PHYSICS C Section II, MECHANICS Time—45 minutes 3 Questions Directions: Answer all three questions. The suggested time is about 15 minutes for answering each of the questions, which are worth 15 points each. The parts within a question may not have equal weight. Show all your work in the pink booklet in the spaces provided after each part, NOT in this green insert. Mech 1. You are conducting an experiment to measure the acceleration due to gravity gu at an unknown location. In the measurement apparatus, a simple pendulum swings past a photogate located at the pendulum’s lowest point, which records the time t10 for the pendulum to undergo 10 full oscillations. The pendulum consists of a sphere of mass m at the end of a string and has a length l. There are four versions of this apparatus, each with a different length. All four are at the unknown location, and the data shown below are sent to you during the experiment. l t10 T T2 (cm) (s) (s) (s2) 12 7.62 18 8.89 21 10.09 32 12.08 (a) For each pendulum, calculate the period T and the square of the period. Use a reasonable number of significant figures. Enter these results in the table above. Copyright © 2000 College Entrance Examination Board and Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. AP is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -2- -X- MMMMMMMMMMMMM - X- 2000 AP® PHYSICS C FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (b) On the axes below, plot the square of the period versus the length of the pendulum. Draw a best-fit straight line for this data. (c) Assuming that each pendulum undergoes small amplitude oscillations, from your fit determine the experimental value gexp of the acceleration due to gravity at this unknown location. Justify your answer. (d) If the measurement apparatus allows a determination of gu that is accurate to within 4%, is your experimental value in agreement with the value 9.80 m/s2 ? Justify your answer. (e) Someone informs you that the experimental apparatus is in fact near Earth’s surface, but that the experiment has been conducted inside an elevator with a constant acceleration a. Assuming that your experimental value gexp is exact, determine the magnitude and direction of the elevator’s acceleration. Copyright © 2000 College Entrance Examination Board and Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. AP is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -3- -X- MMMMMMMMMMMMM - X- 2000 AP® PHYSICS C FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Mech 2. A rubber ball of mass m is dropped from a cliff. As the ball falls, it is subject to air drag (a resistive force caused by the air). The drag force on the ball has magnitude bu 2, where b is a constant drag coefficient and u is the instantaneous speed of the ball. The drag coefficient b is directly proportional to the cross-sectional area of the ball and the density of the air and does not depend on the mass of the ball. As the ball falls, its speed approaches a constant value called the terminal speed. (a) On the figure below, draw and label all the forces on the ball at some instant before it reaches terminal speed. (b) State whether the magnitude of the acceleration of the ball of mass m increases, decreases, or remains the same as the ball approaches terminal speed. Explain. (c) Write, but do NOT solve, a differential equation for the instantaneous speed u of the ball in terms of time t, the given quantities, and fundamental constants. (d) Determine the terminal speed ut in terms of the given quantities and fundamental constants. (e) Determine the energy dissipated by the drag force during the fall if the ball is released at height h and reaches its terminal speed before hitting the ground, in terms of the given quantities and fundamental constants. Copyright © 2000 College Entrance Examination Board and Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. AP is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -4- -X- MMMMMMMMMMMMM - X- 2000 AP® PHYSICS C FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Mech 3. A pulley of radius R1 and rotational inertia I1 is mounted on an axle with negligible friction. A light cord passing over the pulley has two blocks of mass m attached to either end, as shown above. Assume that the cord does not slip on the pulley. Determine the answers to parts (a) and (b) in terms of m, R1, I1, and fundamental constants. (a) Determine the tension T in the cord. (b) One block is now removed from the right and hung on the left. When the system is released from rest, the g three blocks on the left accelerate downward with an acceleration . Determine the following. 3 i. The tension T3 in the section of cord supporting the three blocks on the left ii. The tension T1 in the section of cord supporting the single block on the right iii. The rotational inertia I1 of the pulley Copyright © 2000 College Entrance Examination Board and Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. AP is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -5- -X- MMMMMMMMMMMMM - X- 2000 AP® PHYSICS C FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (c) The blocks are now removed and the cord is tied into a loop, which is passed around the original pulley and a second pulley of radius 2R1 and rotational inertia 16I1. The axis of the original pulley is attached to a motor that rotates it at angular speed ω 1, which in turn causes the larger pulley to rotate. The loop does not slip on the pulleys. Determine the following in terms of I1, R1, and ω 1. i. The angular speed ω 2 of the larger pulley ii. The angular momentum L 2 of the larger pulley iii. The total kinetic energy of the system STOP END OF SECTION II, MECHANICS IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, YOU MAY CHECK YOUR WORK ON SECTION II, MECHANICS, ONLY. DO NOT TURN TO ANY OTHER TEST MATERIALS. Copyright © 2000 College Entrance Examination Board and Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. AP is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board. -6- ...
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