CHAPTER 2 - RoadMap 2.(later 2. 2.3Ions 2. 2.5PeriodicTable...

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Chapter 2 Atoms and Molecules Road Map 2.1  Insight into Polymers (later) 2.2 Atomic Strucuture and Mass 2.3 Ions 2.4  Compounds and Chemical Bonds 2.5  Periodic Table 2.6  Inorganic and Organic Chemistry 2.7  Chemical Nomenclature 2.8  Insight into Polyethylene
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Chapter 2    Atoms and Molecules Chapter Objectives 1. Name at least three common polymers and give  examples of their uses. 2. Define the terms  atom, molecule, isotope, ion,  polymer, monomer;  and  functional group  in your  own words. 3. Describe the nuclear model for the atom and  identify the numbers of protons, electrons, and  neutrons in a particular isotope from its chemical  symbol. 4. Calculate the atomic mass of an element from the  masses and abundances of its isotopes.
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Chapter Objectives continued 5. Explain the difference between a molecular formula  and an empirical formula. 6. Determine the number of atoms in a molecule from  its chemical formula. 7. Describe the arrangement of elements in the periodic  table.  Explain the usefulness of the table. 8. Determine the correct chemical formula from a line  drawing of an organic molecule. 9. Use standard chemical nomenclature to deduce the  names of compounds from their formulas 10. Describe how the properties and applications of  polyethylene are related to its molecular structure.
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Definition: Cannot be broken down to simpler stuff by any chemical means Silicon, Iron, Gold Over 100 “Fundamental Building Blocks” (Elements) Right now: 118 90 occur naturally on earth Rest created from other elements through artificially induced nuclear reactions Elements represented by symbols ELEMENTS
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Symbols for the Elements Appendix A K Potassium Kalium Ag Silver Argentum C Carbon H Hydrogen He Helium Ni Nickel Ca Calcium Hg Mercury Hydrargyrum Fe Iron Ferrum Zn Zinc S Sulfur B Boron Some symbols originate from Latin name Elements named for properties, planets, places and people
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Periodic Table In back of book, atomic mass below symbol
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Atoms Elements: made of atoms Atom: smallest unit of an element that can exist as a stable independent entity “uncuttable” very small Each Element: different kind of atom For Any given Element: all atoms chemically the same Compounds: made up of atoms of two or more elements in a fixed chemical composition Carbon Dioxide
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Structure of an Atom Center of atom: nucleus Nucleus: composed of protons and neutrons Protons: positive charge (+1) Neutrons: neutral charge (0) Protons and neutrons have the exact same mass Electrons : outside of nucleus define outer boundary of atom Negative charge (-1) Smaller mass than proton or neutron
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Structure of the Atom Solar system  depiction  Electrons are  depicted as small  clouds of negative  charge surrounding  the nucleus
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Structure of Atom
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Atomic Structure
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