CHAPTER 2 - Chapter 2 Atoms and Molecules Road Map 2.1...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 2 Atoms and Molecules Road Map 2.1 Insight into Polymers (later) 2.2 Atomic Strucuture and Mass 2.3 Ions 2.4 Compounds and Chemical Bonds 2.5 Periodic Table 2.6 Inorganic and Organic Chemistry 2.7 Chemical Nomenclature 2.8 Insight into Polyethylene Chapter 2 Atoms and Molecules Chapter Objectives 1. Name at least three common polymers and give examples of their uses. 2. Define the terms atom, molecule, isotope, ion, polymer, monomer; and functional group in your own words. 3. Describe the nuclear model for the atom and identify the numbers of protons, electrons, and neutrons in a particular isotope from its chemical symbol. 4. Calculate the atomic mass of an element from the masses and abundances of its isotopes. Chapter Objectives continued 5. Explain the difference between a molecular formula and an empirical formula. 6. Determine the number of atoms in a molecule from its chemical formula. 7. Describe the arrangement of elements in the periodic table. Explain the usefulness of the table. 8. Determine the correct chemical formula from a line drawing of an organic molecule. 9. Use standard chemical nomenclature to deduce the names of compounds from their formulas 10. Describe how the properties and applications of polyethylene are related to its molecular structure. • Definition: Cannot be broken down to simpler stuff by any chemical means – Silicon, Iron, Gold • Over 100 “Fundamental Building Blocks” (Elements) – Right now: 118 – 90 occur naturally on earth – Rest created from other elements through artificially induced nuclear reactions • Elements represented by symbols ELEMENTS Symbols for the Elements Appendix A K Potassium Kalium Ag Silver Argentum C Carbon H Hydrogen He Helium Ni Nickel Ca Calcium Hg Mercury Hydrargyrum Fe Iron Ferrum Zn Zinc S Sulfur B Boron • Some symbols originate from Latin name • Elements named for properties, planets, places and people Periodic Table In back of book, atomic mass below symbol Atoms • Elements: made of atoms • Atom: smallest unit of an element that can exist as a stable independent entity – “uncuttable” very small • Each Element: different kind of atom • For Any given Element: all atoms chemically the same • Compounds: made up of atoms of two or more elements in a fixed chemical composition • Carbon Dioxide Structure of an Atom • Center of atom: nucleus • Nucleus: composed of protons and neutrons – Protons: positive charge (+1) – Neutrons: neutral charge (0) • Protons and neutrons have the exact same mass • Electrons : outside of nucleus – define outer boundary of atom – Negative charge (-1) – Smaller mass than proton or neutron Structure of the Atom • Solar system depiction • Electrons are depicted as small clouds of negative charge surrounding the nucleus Structure of Atom Atomic Structure...
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This note was uploaded on 08/29/2010 for the course CHM 2045 taught by Professor Brant during the Fall '08 term at University of South Florida.

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CHAPTER 2 - Chapter 2 Atoms and Molecules Road Map 2.1...

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