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# CHAPTER 6 - WavesofLight (wavelength Wavetraveling...

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Waves of Light Electromagnetic Radiation Not all radiation is equal Prisms break sunlight into spectrum of colors Colors identified by numerical value (wavelength)

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Electromagnetic Radiation Wave traveling  through space Electric field Magnetic field

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Electromagnetic Radiation Wavelength (Greek lambda,  λ ) distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves Expressed in units of length:  nanometers (nm)
Wave Nature of Light

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Relation between  υ  and  λ   As  υ  (frequency) increases λ  (wavelength) decreases As  υ   decreases λ  increases Frequency =  υ  = c/ λ c= speed of light   3.00 x 10 8  meters/second  or 186,000 miles/second λ   and  υ  are inversely related
Fig. 2.6 Electromagnetic Spectrum

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Electromagnetic Radiation The red light in a laser pointer comes from a diode laser  that has a wavelength of about 630 nm. What is the  frequency of the light? c  = 3.00 x 10 8  m/s –1

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Light as a Particle In the early 20th century, several  discoveries led to a particle model of light. Photons: “particles” of light Energy of a photon: E = h  ν h = “Planck’s Constant”= 6.626 x 10 –34  J s
Planck’s Equation Energy, E = h  υ  = hc /  λ E is the energy of a single photon c = 3.00 x 10 8  m/sec h, Planck’s constant = 6.63 x 10 -34  joule sec Joule is a unit of energy Energy is directly proportional to  υ  (frequency)  and inversely  proportional to  λ  (wavelength) As      , E  As      , E

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Electromagnetic Spectrum Energy (J)
The Energy and Frequency of Quanta Radiation λ ν E Photon E mol (m) (s -1 ) (J) (kJ/mol) Radio Wave 10 3.0x 10 7 2.0 x 10 -26 1.2x10 -5 -22 30 -3 21

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Photon Energy A laser emits red light with wavelength of 630 nm (1 nm = 10 –9  m) What is the energy of a photon at this Wavelength?
Photoelectric Effect Particulate Nature of Light Shine light on metal  (cathode) Electrons emitted Detect number of  electrons and kinetic  energies  Current flow used to  monitor light  intensity.

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Photoelectric Effect
Photoelectric Effect Binding Energy - energy holding an  electron to a metal. Threshold frequency,  ν o  - minimum frequency  of light needed to emit an electron. For frequencies below the threshold frequency,  no electrons are emitted. For frequencies above the threshold

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CHAPTER 6 - WavesofLight (wavelength Wavetraveling...

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