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Lecture 22 101708 - Announcements Second Exam Average 78...

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Announcements Second Exam: Average 78% Extra credit points posted separately from exam points Homework points posted soon Clicker points posted soon Midterm grade posted by Monday
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Grading for Course Three Exams (Drop Lowest) 45% Final Exam 30% OWL homework 15% In-Class Clicker Questions and Quizzes 10% Grading scale and policy on syllabus
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Ionic Bonds Ionic bonds: form when an element that has a low ionization energy gives an electron to an element that has a high electron affinity and wants to accept an electron
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Ionic Solids The oppositely charged Na and Cl ions are attracted to one another by electrostatic forces These forces define the ionic bond Collection of ionic bonds between neighboring Na + and Cl - ions lead to the NaCl ionic solid.
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Ionic Bonds Electron Configuration of Cations Main-group metals donate electrons from the atom’s highest-energy occupied atomic orbital forming cations Na: 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 1 = [Ne] 3 s 1 Na + : 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 = [Ne] Mg: 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 = [Ne] 3 s 2 Mg 2+ : 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 = [Ne] Al: 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 3 p 1 = [Ne] 3 s 2 3p 1
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Electron Configuration of Anions Main-group nonmetals accept electrons into their lowest-energy unoccupied atomic orbital forming anions. N: 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 3 = [He] 2 s 2 2 p 3 N 3– : 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 = [He] 2 s 2 2 p 6 O: 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 4 = [He] 2 s 2 2 p 4 O 2– : 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 = [He] 2 s 2 2 p 6 F: 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 5 = [He] 2 s 2 2 p 5 F : 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 = [He] 2 s 2 2 p 6
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Electron Configuration of Ions Transition metals lose their valence-shell s -
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