Lecture 28 103108 - Announcements Chapter 8 Homework due...

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Announcements Chapter 8 Homework due Wednesday Nov. 5 Chapter 8 “Molecules and Materials” Chapter 9 “Energy and Chemistry” introduce Friday Next Exam November 12 on Chapters 7, 8 and 9
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Band Theory and Conductivity Order of increasing band gap: Metals < metalloids < nonmetals
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Comparison of Intermolecular Forces All intermolecular forces weaker than a fairly week chemical bond
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Vapor Pressure, P vap Liquid in a closed container evaporates until: rate of condensation = rate of evaporation P vap = pressure at which a liquid is in equilibrium with its vapor at a given T As Temperature increases, more liquid molecules have enough energy to escape Evaporation rate and P vap increases
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Vapor Pressure Liquids in closed containers will establish equilibrium with its vapor phase.
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Phase Changes Depend on Temperature Vapor pressure, Pvap, increases with temperature Liquids with strong intermolecular forces have lower Pvap Volatile liquids: high Pvap
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Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point Liquid boils when: vapor pressure of a liquid equals external pressure Normal boiling point of liquid: temperature at which boiling occurs when external pressure = 1atm Liquid boils at a lower than normal temperature when: external pressure is less than 1 atm, Pvap necessary for boiling is reached earlier than 1 atm
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Boiling Point The vapor pressure of water varies dramatically as a function of temperature.
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