TEST 3 NOTES!

TEST 3 NOTES! - Morgan Mains Biology 1202 Test #3 Other...

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Morgan Mains Biology 1202 Test #3 Other biological entities o Not organisms o Viruses o Viroids Even simpler and smaller than viruses Fragments of single-stranded RNA with no protein coat (nothing surrounding the genome)
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They hijack cells. They infect primary plant cells including citrus trees, potatoes, avocados, etc. When some plant cells see double stranded RNA, some plants dice up the double- stranded RNA as targeting sequences to find messenger RNA. o Prions Nonliving particle that damages brain tissues The damage was caused by mad cow or Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. This is a cell that is infected with the disease. What exactly is a prion? They are unusual infectious particles. Prions are a protein particle with NO genetic material (DNA or RNA) It is a disease that individuals can inherit from their parents and can lead to many problems in your nervous system. Mad cow disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and kuru o Takes 15 years for the disease to kill you o Cannibals ate brains of tribe members. Prions consist of a protein that is folded incorrectly and makes other proteins fold wrong. There is an aggregation of these proteins. (Beta-pleated sheets) It takes a lot to denature these proteins. But where do they come from? Not completely understood. They developed as a by-product of living organisms, using humans as a host. Bioremediation o “To make living things better” o Using living organisms to clean up toxic waste, oil spills, and other man-made areas like Chernobyl. o These organisms are naturally resistant to high doses of radiation so they can be genetically modified to target the high waste areas so they can be cleaned up o Sometimes microbes and sometimes plants.
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o Deinococcus radiodurans Survive 3000 times more radiation than humans When exposed to this radiation, it does die. IT goes from being easy to detect to absolutely nothing. The whole genome is shredded. After a day of recovery, it repairs its entire genome with no errors or mutations People have been working on this bacterium for many years. Can these bacteria be used to help people with problems from radiation? NASA? The Army? Spherical – coccus-shaped bacteria Tolerates extreme dehydration, heat, and cold Used to “chew up” toxic waste Exxon-Valdez Oil Spill “Super Bacterium” o Naturally occurring bacteria can also clean up messes. Spilt oil can be broken down by enzymes present in naturally occurring bacteria o Polyester o Develop Ethanol-producing bacteria Can be produced by prokaryotes or eukaryotic algae. Prokaryotes Bacteria and Archaea Domains 8000 species described, may even be 100-1000 times that number The first organisms to appear on Earth, 3.5 billion years ago. o
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TEST 3 NOTES! - Morgan Mains Biology 1202 Test #3 Other...

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