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Exam 1_Lectures[1] from noteswap

Exam 1_Lectures[1] from noteswap - Biol1202 ,secondary,...

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Biol 1202 Jan 21 How are genes and proteins related? - genes determine the primary, secondary, tertiary and quarternary structures of  proteins - protein structure determines the way processes of life are carried out (enzymes  and energy) (1) gene to RNA to protein     DNA to RNA is transcription (2) gene is a segment of DNA on a chromosome (3) DNA codes for a specific amino acid sequence in a protein or for RNA that  helps make proteins (4) all life forms use DNA as genetic material DNA vs RNA -RNA: single stranded, ribose is sugar    m, r, and t -DNA: double stranded, deoxyribose is sugar Transcription vs Translation -transcription converts DNA (A,T,C,G) to RNA (A,U,C,G) -translation converts RNA (A,U,C,G) to protein through amino acid sequences -How is information transcribed? From gene to RNA (1) unwound DNA; DNA polymerase moves along (2) termination produces single RNA strand
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-How is RNA translated to a protein?  Language barrier (1) nucleic acids: RNA- 4 nucleotides & DNA- 4 nucleotides (2)  protein 20 amino acids (AUG is start codon) Genetic Code -codon: triplet of nucleotides that codes for one amino acid Translation (Protein Synthesis) -takes place in ribosome of rough ER -Requirements: amino acid tied to tRNA, small and large subunits, ATP -Steps: (1) initiation- small ribosome at anticodon for UAC and large subunit  comes in; (2) elongation- second tRNA to bind to next codon, catalytic site bonds;  (3) termination- stop codon Mutations (change in the DNA sequence) -point: one base pair change, can be fixed on the appropriate strand 50% of the  time -insertion & deletion are frameshift (add or remove one pair)  and they change every codon past that point -Mutations in evolution: (1)raw material; (2)neutral or harmful Theory of evolution by natural selection (1) change in allele frequencies in a population over time (2) living species are descendants of ancestral species that were different form  present day ones     
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22:43 Chapter 25
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22:43 History of Life on Earth  How did life begin?
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