Nutrition Concepts_Collison_Date_030910

Nutrition Concepts_Collison_Date_030910 - Chapter 5-...

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Chapter 5- Lipids, Triglycerides, Phospholipids, and Sterols INTRO: *Too much, too little, too much of some fats unhealthy- mono and polyunsaturated fat is good in a diet A. Family of lipids 1. Triglycerides- molecule of glycerol and 3 fatty acids 2. Phospholipids- glycerol, 2 fatty acids, phosphate, and kolene *Soluble in water and fat 3. Sterols- ring structures (ex: Cholesterol) Fatty Acids and Triglycerides: Chemistry -More carbons and hydrogens (9 kcals/g) Fatty acids: -Organic acid -Methyl group (CH 3 ) on one end, acid group at other end -18-carbon fatty acids abundant in food Saturation of fatty acids: A. Saturated- hydrogens surround carbons B. Unsaturated- even number of carbons 1. Monounsaturated- 1 double bond (ex: canola oil, olive oil) 2. Polyunsaturated- 2+ double bonds (ex: peanut butter, margarine) C. Omega-3- double bond is 3 rd from end D. Omega-6- double bond is 6 th from end Triglycerides: -Glycerol backbone -3 fatty acids -Formed via series of condensation reactions -Usually contain mixture of fatty acids Degree of Unsaturation: A. Firmness (more saturated- solid @ room temperature) 1. Polyunsaturated 2. Saturated 3. Length of carbon chain B. Stability (more shelf life) 1. Oxidation and spoilage of fats 2. Saturated is more stable (longer shelf life) C. Hydrogenation 1. Adding H’s increases shelf life, making it more stable D. Trans-fatty acids 1. Configurations- cis and trans (Cis- R groups point in same direction; Trans- R groups point in reverse direction)
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2. Similarity to other types of fats Phospholipids and Sterols: Chemistry Phospholipids: - Solubility in fat and water - Emulsifiers in food industry - Lecithin: made in cell membrane, acts as emulsifier; 9 kcals/g - Food Source: nuts, oils, soy beans Sterols: - Food sources
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Nutrition Concepts_Collison_Date_030910 - Chapter 5-...

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