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Problems of Corrections_Fleury-Steiner_Date_032110

Problems of Corrections_Fleury-Steiner_Date_032110 - Format...

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Format: 30-40 Multiple Choice & True-False Questions Material Covered: Lecture Allen et al Ch. 1-4 Documentaries: The Farm Crime & Punishment in America Three Strikes (possibly) You will be asked very basic questions about the documentaries to evaluate that you watched them. Chapter 1: Early History (2000 b.c. to 1800 a.d.) Study Questions: How did punishment develop through the Middle Ages and up to the Age of Enlightenment? Pre Early Middle Ages- personal retaliation and blood feud Middle Ages- the King’s law and divine law Mid 1700s – the age of the enlightenment and the development of corrections as a philosophy. Late 1700s – William Penn and the birth of the penitentiary Personal and family > King and god > corrections > penitentiary How did the role of the king influence the style of punishment? Punishment was no longer a private problem. King’s used public punishment as deterrent method. Punishment requires public action against wrongdoer; Crime was an action against society. How did the role of the church influence the style of punishment? Sinner had to pay two debts – one to society and another to God; Trial by ordeal – accused were subject to impossible and dangerous tests and those who could emerge unharmed were innocent. The guilty suffer and die > high percentage of convictions. Concept of free will – individuals choose their actions and can be held fully responsible for them Inquisition – vicious tortures to gain confessions and repentance form sexual offenses, heresy, and witchcraft How did the assumptions about the nature of criminality change during the Age of Enlightenment?
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Philosophers recognized humanity’s essential dignity and imperfection Reform in criminal justice system – punishment > corrections and moderate punishments The following are the key concepts and individuals from Chapter 1 that you need to know for exam 1 : Folkways – common sense behaviors; facing front in an elevator Mores – rules that make society better, beliefs; defense of marriage acts Laws - codifies behaviors and rules The Continuum of Behavior- Can be negative and positive. Discouraged – laws – mores – folkways (behaviors) – mores – laws – encouraged Retaliation – act designed to repay or to get revenge; was a system of law in early tribes Blood feud – series of retaliatory, vengeful, or hostile acts between families or tribes Free Will – main contribution of medieval church; individuals choose their actions, good or bad, and thus can be held fully responsible for them; eternal punishment, atonement, and spiritual conversion rest on the assumption that people who commit sins could have acted differently if they chose to. Wergeld – (lex salica) – the custom of atonement for wrongs against a victim by payment to the victim’s family or tribe Friedensgeld – paying restitution for crime to both the victim and the Crown Lex talionis – the act of repaying in kind “an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth”; appears
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