Psychopathology_Fowles_Date__032310

Psychopathology_Fowles_Date__032310 - Mood Disorders (Ch....

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Unformatted text preview: Mood Disorders (Ch. 8) Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) Depressed mood OR loss of interest or pleasure (anhedonia) o Minimum period of 2 weeks o Not due to normal bereavement ( >6 months after loss) PLUS 4 of the following symptoms o Change in sleep patterns (sleeping more or less) o Change in appetite (eating more or less) o Psychomotor agitation or retardation o Loss of energy, fatigue o Feelings of self-blame, worthlessness, guilt o Difficulty concentrating, indecisiveness o Thoughts of death or suicide Episodic o Symptoms tend to dissipate over time, unlike bioolar which is chronic Recurrent o Once depression occurs, future episodes are likely Average number of episodes is 4 (Judd, 1997) Subclinical depression o Sadness plus 3 other symptoms for 10 days o Significant impairments in functioning even though full diagnostic criteria are not met Dysthymic Disorder (Dysthymia) Chronic depression o Depressed mood for at least 2 years (without major depression) o Median duration is about 5 years PLUS 2 other symptoms o Poor appetite or overeating o Sleeping too much or too little o Psychomotor agitation or retardation o Loss of energy o Feelings of worthlessness o Difficulty concentrating or indecisiveness o Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide Double depression o Dysthymia + major depressive episode Gender Differences in Depression MDD twice as common in women as in men (2/1 ratio) o Similar discrepancy occurs in many countries o Does not hold true for Jewish adults o After age 65, rates similar in males and females Differences emerge in adolescence Some biological and psychological factors may influence gender differences o Hormones? o Girls twice as likely to experience sexual abuse o Women more likely to experience chronic stressors o Girls and women more self-critical, esp. around appearance o Women may react more intensely to interpersonal loss o Women spend more time ruminating; mend tend to distract Epidemiology and Consequences Depression is common o Lifetime prevalence 16.4% MDD 2.5% Dysthymia Prevalence varies across cultures o MDD 1.5% in Taiwan 19% in Beirut, Lebanon People who move to the US from Mexico have lower rates than people of Mexican descent who were born in the U.S. 3x more common among people in poverty Symptom variation across cultures o Latino cultures Complaints of nerves and headaches o Asian cultures Complaints of weakness, fatigue, and poor concentration About 15% commit suicide Increases risk for physical diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases, especially cardiovascular disease Co-morbidity o 2/3 of those with MDD will also meet criteria for anxiety disorder at some point Subtypes: Depressive Disorders Seasonal o Episodes happen regularly at a particular time of year...
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This note was uploaded on 08/30/2010 for the course PSYC 380 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at University of Delaware.

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Psychopathology_Fowles_Date__032310 - Mood Disorders (Ch....

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