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Psychopathology_Fowles_Date__032310

Psychopathology_Fowles_Date__032310 - Mood Disorders(Ch 8...

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Mood Disorders (Ch. 8) Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) Depressed mood OR loss of interest or pleasure (anhedonia) o Minimum period of 2 weeks o Not due to normal bereavement ( >6 months after loss) PLUS 4 of the following symptoms o Change in sleep patterns (sleeping more or less) o Change in appetite (eating more or less) o Psychomotor agitation or retardation o Loss of energy, fatigue o Feelings of self-blame, worthlessness, guilt o Difficulty concentrating, indecisiveness o Thoughts of death or suicide Episodic o Symptoms tend to dissipate over time, unlike bioolar which is chronic Recurrent o Once depression occurs, future episodes are likely Average number of episodes is 4 (Judd, 1997) Subclinical depression
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o Sadness plus 3 other symptoms for 10 days o Significant impairments in functioning even though full diagnostic criteria are not met Dysthymic Disorder (Dysthymia) Chronic depression o Depressed mood for at least 2 years (without major depression) o Median duration is about 5 years PLUS 2 other symptoms o Poor appetite or overeating o Sleeping too much or too little o Psychomotor agitation or retardation o Loss of energy o Feelings of worthlessness o Difficulty concentrating or indecisiveness o Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide Double depression o Dysthymia + major depressive episode Gender Differences in Depression MDD twice as common in women as in men (2/1 ratio) o Similar discrepancy occurs in many countries
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o Does not hold true for Jewish adults o After age 65, rates similar in males and females Differences emerge in adolescence Some biological and psychological factors may influence gender differences o Hormones? o Girls twice as likely to experience sexual abuse o Women more likely to experience chronic stressors o Girls and women more self-critical, esp. around appearance o Women may react more intensely to interpersonal loss o Women spend more time ruminating; mend tend to distract Epidemiology and Consequences Depression is common o Lifetime prevalence 16.4% MDD 2.5% Dysthymia Prevalence varies across cultures o MDD 1.5% in Taiwan 19% in Beirut, Lebanon People who move to the US from Mexico have lower rates than people of Mexican descent who were born in the U.S.
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3x more common among people in poverty Symptom variation across cultures o Latino cultures Complaints of nerves and headaches o Asian cultures Complaints of weakness, fatigue, and poor concentration About 15% commit suicide Increases risk for physical diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases, especially cardiovascular disease Co-morbidity o 2/3 of those with MDD will also meet criteria for anxiety disorder at some point Subtypes: Depressive Disorders Seasonal o Episodes happen regularly at a particular time of year Postpartum onset o
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