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The Oceans_Throughgood_Final Study Guide

The Oceans_Throughgood_Final Study Guide - The Oceans Final...

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Atmosphere 1 Why is climatology important? -controls large scale weather patterns and ocean circulation o Know the anatomy of a storm (i.e. eye wall, rising air at center of low pressure, where highest velocity winds are located) -eye at the center surrounded by the eye wall. Eye originates from a center of low pressure, then high pressure on either side of the eye wall. Cyclones rotate counterclockwise. Anticyclones are opposite, with a high pressure center and low pressure on either side of the wall, rotate clockwise o What fuels a tropical storm? What happens to the strength of a tropical storm when it moves over land? -air starts moving towards areas of low pressure and veers off course to right. Driven by eat energy from evaporation and condensation, fuel is warm water vapor. Originate in ITCZ -intensity of a storm increases as it moves away from equator (increased Coriolis effect). But intensity decreases as it moves over cool water or land because it doesn’t have the warm moist air fueling it anymore o Understand how and why ocean circulation is dependent on the two different atmospheric factors (heat and wind). -wind drives surface circulation while heat drives sub-surface circulation o Solar radiation is what drives oceanic and atmospheric circulation. Be prepared to describe a “Heat budget” -there is a fixed amount of heat on the planet, so heat lost = heat gained o Describe what is meant by “Heat Capacity.” What are the values of the heat capacity for air and water? Which one is greater? Why??? -Heat Capacity (Cp): The quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by 1 o C at 1 atm pressure -water has a 4x higher heat capacity than air o Understand what the latent heat of evaporation is, and the important consequences which occur in the atmosphere (hint: what happens when water vapor condenses to rain?)
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-latent heat of evaporation: amount of energy needed to convert liquid water to water vapor, major source of energy to atmosphere. When water condenses to rain the energy is released o How are winds and currents named? -winds are named by where they come from (if they blow from the west, theyre westerlies), currents are named by where they flow to o Understand the role of the atmosphere and ocean circulation to transport heat from areas of heat gain to areas of heat loss. o How does air density respond to heat input? How does air density respond to moisture input? What type of air is most dense? Least dense? -as heat increases, density decreases -as moisture increases, density decreases -cold dry air = most dense, warm moist air = least dense o Understand what atmospheric pressure is. How is this related to the air density? -as air density increases, atmospheric pressure increases. Direct relationship o What are the main (global) pressure zones? What is their effect on atmospheric circulation? (hint: which way does the wind blow?) -low pressure zones = equatorial latitude and oceans, high pressure = polar latitudes and land
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