United States History_Martz_Date__032310

United States History_Martz_Date__032310 - Chapter One The...

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Chapter One: The First Civilization THE POWER OF A HIDDEN PAST America’s “hidden past”: -man-made earthen mounds/ancient archaeological sites -reminders of the continent’s precontact history that history books ignore or trivialize Colonial and Revolutionary era people saw such sites as curiosities and marvels -George Washington, Thomas Jefferson collected ancient artifacts -travelers explored mounds and wondered about who had built them In 1830s and 1840s, American opinion on ancient sites shifted -ancestors of “savage” contemporary Indians could not have built such inspiring monuments -tale of King Madoc from Wales who shipwrecked with small ingenious population of Welsh pioneers and built mounds before being overrun by Indians -poetic justice : Indians receiving just punishment for what ancestors did to Welsh A CONTINENT OF CULTURES Nomads/Indians from Asia crossed Bering Strait 15,000 years ago Between 10,000 and 2,500 years ago, distinctive regional cultures developed -Great Plains people hunted smaller descendants of bison -Great Basin desert people survived on small game, seeds and edible plants -Pacific Northwest relied on fishing -those east of Miss tracked deer and bear, hunted small game animals and birds -distinct groups developed own languages, social organizations, governments, religious beliefs and practices ANCIENT MEXICO Agriculture allowed first farmers to settle in one place -corn, beans, beans, tomatoes could be dried and stored Social change: -farming villages gave way to larger, richer and more advanced societies -villages advanced into skillfully planned urban sites that were centers for trade, government, artistic display, and religious ceremony Olmecs: -first city builders in Americas; constructed plazas, pyramids, sculptures -Teotihucan: town inspired by Olmecs, perhaps through trade, which evolved into metropolis of towering pyramids; marketplaces, palaces, schools and suburbs Mayas: -built cities with palaces, bridges, aqueducts, baths, astronomical observatories, pyramids topped with temples -written language, discovered the zero and had most accurate calendar Earliest urban centers of Olmec, Teotihucan and Mayas collapsed -Military attack or exhaustion of local resources Aztecs: -outdid Mayan grandeur; plaza, Great Temple of the Sun, causeways connecting island to mainland, temples -gold, silver, exotic feathers and jewels, cocoa, maize: all trade goods from people
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dominated by Aztecs -Aztec ruler aristocrats (monopolized positions of religious, military and political leadership commoners (merchants, farmers and craftworkers that performed all manual labor slaves SOUTHWEST CULTURES: lived near streams to use irrigation and maize cultivation Mogollon: -master potters of Southwest Hohokam: -pioneered vast and complex irrigation systems to support one of largest populations Anasazi: -corn, beans, squash even in high altitude -villages of masonry buildings, wide straight roads, religious shrines, astronomical observatories, stations to send signals to other villages
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United States History_Martz_Date__032310 - Chapter One The...

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