United States History_Martz_Date__040810

United States History_Martz_Date__040810 - CHAPTER 9: The...

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CHAPTER 9: The Early Republic (1789-1824) The “Whiskey Rebellion”: - farmers refused to pay the excise tax on distilled whiskey -rebellion deepened the fears for the future of the new republic -Could the new government established by the Constitution provide a framework strong enough to untie such a socially diverse nation? 1789: A SOCIAL PORTRAIT African Americans and Indians lacked effective political influence - Blacks made up 1/5 of the population, and most were slaves in the south White population doubled every 22 years -Natural increase: women gave birth to 8 children on average -youthful population; half were under 16 in 1790 -overwhelmingly rural: movement of people and goods was slow Contrast between semisubsistence and commercial ways of life SEMISUBSISTENCE AND COMMERCIAL ECONOMIES Rural, white Americans: - mostly lived off of the land -wealth was spread fairly broadly -women played a key role in producing required goods -depended on neighbors to help clear fields, build homes and harvest crops -barter economy where money was seldom seen or used except to pay taxes Commercial Economy: -sold goods or services in wider market and lived on earnings -water was a cost-effective transportation system (fast) -wealth less equally distributed (richest 10% owned 50% of wealth) THE CONSTITUTION AND COMMERCE Urban merchants and commercial farmers generally rallied behind Constitution - broader, more cosmopolitan view of the nation’s future -more favorable view of government power Semisubsistence barter economy generally opposed the Constitution - feared concentrated power, suspicious of cities and opposed aristocracy just wanted to be left alone THE NEW GOVERNMENT George Washington unanimously elected president WASHINGTON ORGANIZES THE GOVERNMENT Secretary of Treasury: Alexander Hamilton Head to the State Department: Thomas Jefferson Vice President: John Adams (generally left out of cabinet discussions) Chief of Justice: John Jay HAMILTON’S FINANCIAL PROGRAM Federal government’s two most pressing financial problems: revenue and credit - Hamilton wanted all $52 million debt to be paid in full -recommended that federal government assume responsibility for remaining $25
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million in debts that individual states owed (policy of “assumption”) -proposed a series of excise taxes to help meet government expenses (whiskey) Jefferson and Madison agreed to support his proposal: -if after 10 years in Philadelphia, the permanent seat of government would be located in the South, on Potomac River between Virginia and Maryland Congress approved the plan and a 20-yr charter for first Bank of the US - Congress less receptive to rest of Hamilton’s program except the excise taxes Two warring political parties emerge: -Republicans led by Jefferson and Madison -Federalists led by Hamilton and Adams Hamilton’s program promoted commercial system at the expense of the semisubsistence farmers - Rekindled concerns that had surfaces during ratification of the Constitution Fears over the Bank:
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This note was uploaded on 08/30/2010 for the course HIST 205 taught by Professor Holyfield during the Spring '08 term at University of Delaware.

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United States History_Martz_Date__040810 - CHAPTER 9: The...

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