United States History_Martz_Date_042710

United States - CHAPTER 13 The Old South(1820-1860 The South was a land of great social and geographic diversity in 1860 but strong ties united

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CHAPTER 13 - The Old South (1820-1860) The South was a land of great social and geographic diversity in 1860, but strong ties united them -agricultural system that took advantage of a warm climate and long growing season -rural agricultural economy based on the system of slavery THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF THE COTTON KINGDOM DEEP SOUTH Up until 1840s, immigrants were flocking to the “black belt” region of central Alabama and along the Mississippi River -dark, rich soil was particularly suited to growing cotton But by the eve of the Civil War, nearly a third of total cotton crop came from west of the Mississippi River (people had expanded even more) - cotton was the primary export and major source of southern wealth UPPER SOUTH Wheat and corn were the major crops New crops required less labor, so slaveholders sold their surplus slaves to planters in the Deep South Basic problems underlying the South’s prosperity: -Once the prime agricultural land was settled, the South could not sustain its rate of expansion -Single-crop agriculture practice rapidly wore out the soil and increased toxins and parasites in the soil, which made southern agriculture more vulnerable than diversified agriculture was -plowing fields rather than using a hoe accelerated soil erosion -increase in disease brought to the area by Europeans and encouraged by the runoff which created stagnant water because of land clearing THE RURAL SOUTH 1860: 84% of the labor force was engaged in agriculture; South produced only 9% of the nation’s manufactured goods -With so little industry, few cities developed in the South The South as a rural economy: -showed little interest in education or public school systems; most could not read DISTRIBUTION OF SLAVERY Slavery became the South’s “peculiar institution” rather than a national thing -more than half of slaves lived in the Deep South -in areas of fertile soil, countryside and good transportation slavery dominated -in areas isolated by lack of transportation and covered by hills and mountains, small family farms and few slaves were the rule SLAVERY AS A LABOR SYSTEM Slavery: - responsible for the development of plantations -was a highly profitable investment: slaveholder took about 60% of the annual wealth produced by a slave’s labor -shaped the tone of southern society: wealth and power was in the hands of the planter class
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Southern planters thought of themselves as landed gentry upholding the aristocratic values of pride, honor, family and hospitality - hostile opinion from the North and Europe made white southerners feel like an isolated minority defending an embattled position CLASS STRUCTURE OF THE WHITE SOUTH Class relations among whites in the Old South were a complex blend of privilege, patronage and equality THE SLAVEOWNERS 1860: -one quarter of the 8 million white southerners owned slaves -most slaveowners owned only a few slaves -planter of consequence owned at least 50 slaves and this group made up the aristocracy at the top of the southern class structure
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This note was uploaded on 08/30/2010 for the course HIST 205 taught by Professor Holyfield during the Spring '08 term at University of Delaware.

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United States - CHAPTER 13 The Old South(1820-1860 The South was a land of great social and geographic diversity in 1860 but strong ties united

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