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United States History_Martz_Date_051110

United States History_Martz_Date_051110 - CHAPTER 15 The...

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CHAPTER 15: The Union Broken (1850-1861) Conflict in Kansas: -land disputes, horse thievery and shootings -federal government seemed to back proslavery forces -Lawrence “committee of safety” agreed on a policy of non-resistance -Samuel Jones led Posse into Lawrence and ransacked the town -John Brown, “Old Man Brown”, was made that the free-states did not resist -Brown’s “Northern Army” executed 5 men Brown’s action precipitated a new wave of fighting in Kansas -Stephen Douglas’ popular sovereignty, the last remaining moderate solution to controversy over the expansion of slavery, had failed SECTIONAL CHANGES IN AMERICAN SOCIETY THE GROWTH OF A RAILROAD ECONOMY Cotton was no longer the driving force of American economic growth (1839) -Vast eastern railroad network took over Effects of the Western railroad: -Railroad sold federal land grants to farmers which raised construction capital and stimulated settlement, increasing profits and business -nearby farmers could now sell cash crops in distant locations -the mining and iron industries were stimulated to proved for rail lines -Chicago became the hub, connecting Midwest farms to eastern cities -the old political alliance between South and West based on economic shared interests was weakened by the new patterns of commerce Sharp rise in international demand for grain -farmers specialized in cash crops and invested in equipment to increase productivity RAILROADS AND THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT Communities realized that their economic survival depended on creating rail links to the countryside and to major urban markets After a few years, tracks were relocated to the outskirts of town -tracks became a physical marker of social and economic divisions in town RISING INDUSTRIALIZATION Expansion of commercial agriculture and shift from water to steam power spurred the growth of industry - factory system of organizing labor and technology of interchangeable parts spread to other areas of the economy during the 1850s For the first time, less than half of the workers in the North were employed in agriculture: industry depended on large factory source IMMIGRATION Wave from 1845 to 1854 was the largest influx of immigrants in American history Factors that brought immigrants: -booming economy and lure of freedom -deteriorating conditions in Europe: potato famine -political and social oppression
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Who came? -poor Catholic Irish who congregated in cities because they were unskilled -Catholic German families in modest straits (not poor) -Scandinavian small farmers whose lands had became marginal or displaced, and skilled workers thrown out of work by industrialization
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