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Experimental Methods in Neuroscience 8-25-10

Experimental Methods in Neuroscience 8-25-10 - Experimental...

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Experimental Methods in Neuroscience Dr. McKemy 8/25/2010
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Brain imaging techniques-fMRI Functional MRI is based on the increase in blood flow to the local vasculature that accompanies neural activity in the brain. A noninvasive measurement that can record signals from all regions of the brain. Not a direct measure of neural activity. Blood oxygenation is closely linked to neural activity.
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People who can not feel pain still empathize with those that do. Danziger et al., 2009
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Measuring electrical signals in neurons Need to know the membrane potential or voltage . Need to know conductance or the ionic currents .
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The squid led the way!
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The voltage-clamp technique
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“clamps” the neuron’s membrane potential
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What if V c was not equal to V m ?
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Stimulating electrical signals in neurons
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Measuring ion channel activity
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Genetic Methods in Neuroscience Model systems Genetic approaches Knock-out animals Delete a specific gene of interest Knock-in animals Replace a specific gene of interest with an exogenous gene. Transgenic animals Insert a copy of an exogenous gene under control of the regulatory elements of a specific gene of interest Tools Labeling select neurons Identifying neural networks Activating neurons within a network Inhibiting neurons within a network
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Model Organisms The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans The fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster The mouse
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